By Joseph B. Justice Jr. (auth.), Joseph B. Justice Jr. (eds.)
Even sooner than the time of equipped medical research, hu mans had all started considering and trying to clarify the paintings ing of the mind and the psychological and behavioral states it produces. within the final two decades there was a nearly explosive in crease in mind examine. starting might be with the pioneering efforts of Francis O. Schmitt to set up the Neuroscience Re seek application and the later improvement of the Society for Neuroscience, there has emerged a wide and strong multi disciplinary examine strength dedicated to knowing even the ru dimentary elements of mind functioning. Chemists, physicists, and engineers with their particular professional ise in quantitative actual measurements have teamed up with the neurobiologists, who top comprehend the feel and layout of brains, to supply quite potent new ways. No the place is that this extra glaring than within the lately constructed meth ods like positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging-techniques that permit one to monitor on-going mind ac tivity in people. This quantity matters a significantly extra modest technique: using microelectrodes to electrochemically display screen sure points of chemical dynamics in functioning ani mal mind platforms. the tactic offers signs that may be di rectly regarding chemical neurotransmission. it's a particularly new approach, the 1st sensible measurements having been made within the Seventies, and it's constantly present process refinement. The organizer of this booklet, Jay Justice, is eminently certified for the task.
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Extra resources for Voltammetry in the Neurosciences: Principles, Methods, and Applications
A linearly increasing ramp is applied and the resulting current is measured. where n is the number of electrons, A is the electrode area in cm2 , D is the diffusion coefficient in cm 2is, v is the sweep rate in vis, and C is the bulk concentration in mollcm3 . 28 Joseph B. Justice, Jr. Note that the faradaic current in the above equation increases with the square root of the sweep rate. Unfortunately, the charging current, io is equal to the product of electrode area, A, the double layer capacitance, Cd, and the sweep rate, v.
It is convenient to prepare 20-30 electrodes at one time. 2. CARBON FIBER ELECTRODES, from the high-temperature pyrolysis of materials such as polyacrylonitrile or pitch, and have diameters of 6-12 ILm. , 1979; Armstrong-James and Millar, 1979), A small amount of mercury or conducting epoxy is placed in the capillary to make electrical contact with the fiber. Those prepared by Ponchon et al. extend 0,5 mm beyond the seal to provide a larger surface area and therefore larger current. , 1981b). , (1980a), Carbon fiber electrodes etched to a conical point have been described by Armstrong-James et al.
15. Somewhat surprisingly, there do not appear to be any detailed studies on the mechanism of ascorbic acid oxidation at carbon paste or glassy carbon electrodes. , 1973). 4 V vs Ag/ AgCl (Stutts and Wightman, 1983). 39 Introduction to In Vivo Voltammetry l1 H , , 0 oAyo -H + - e- ~ c$"' T 0 -e , , o~ CHOH CHOH I I CH20H ADS CH20H ADS rate detn step oJ; CHOH I CH20H Fig. 15. trode. + H2O FAST ) HO HO H OH 0 H H Mechanism of ascorbic acid oxidation at a platinum elec- 40 Joseph B. Justice, Jr. , 1984).