By Ellis R. Loew, William N. McFarland (auth.), Ron Douglas, Mustafa Djamgoz (eds.)
A query frequently requested of these people who paintings within the possible esoteric box of fish imaginative and prescient is, why? to a few people the reply turns out noticeable - what number different visible scientists get to dive in a tropical lagoon within the identify of technological know-how after which may be able to consume their matters for dinner? besides the fact that, there are larger, or a minimum of scientifically extra appropriate, purposes for engaged on the visible procedure of fish. First, by way of numbers, fish are through some distance an important of all vertebrate periods, most likely accounting for over part (c. 22 000 species) of all famous vertebrate species (Nelson, 1984). moreover, a lot of those are of business significance. Secondly, if one of many learn goals is to appreciate the human visible process, animals equivalent to fish can let us know very much, on account that in lots of methods their visible structures, and particularly their eyes, are just like our personal. this can be lucky, when you consider that there are numerous recommendations, equivalent to intracellular retinal recording, that are important to our knowing of the visible procedure, that can not be played repeatedly on primates. The chilly blooded fish, nevertheless, is a perfect topic for such reports and masses of what we all know approximately, for instance, the basics of knowledge processing within the retina is predicated on paintings conducted on fish (e. g. Svaetichin, 1953).
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Extra resources for The Visual System of Fish
Movement of the reflected gratings across the unbarred models, however, remained most apparent. These rather simple initial experiments reveal how wave-induced flicker and reflected patterns can potentially interact in a complex manner with marked and unmarked targets to enhance or diminish their visibility underwater. But do these initial laboratory demonstrations provide realistic glimpses of natural situations? We reported several field observations in 1983, and add an additional observation that closely parallels the findings reported from our fish models.
Naturwissenschaften, 72, 343-52. C. S. (1979) Penetration of UVB and biologically effective dose rates in natural waters. Photochem. , 29, 311-23. W. M. (1987) Observations on the intra- and interspecific single cell optical variability of marine phytoplankton. Appl. , 26, 357-62. A. (1962) Spatial distribution of the degree of polarization of natural light in the sea. Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. , 12, 1843-51. A. G. S. Nielsen), Academic Press, London, pp. 177-219. E. (1974) Heuristic arguments for the pattern of polarization in deep ocean water, in Planets, Stars and Nebulae Studied with Photometry (ed.
400 nm, 48% at c. 440 nm, 53% at c. 500 nm, and increased to 57% at 550 nm). The wavelength effect results directly from the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficients. As already mentioned, light of shorter wavelength is scattered most and loses its directionality over shorter optical paths than light of longer wavelengths. This loss in directionality is accompanied by a decline in polarization. 4). The overall result is that wavelengths on each side of the wavelength of maximum transmission become collimated more rapidly and therefore produce a higher degree of polarization over a shorter optical path length.