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Extra info for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Membrane Fabrication
To explore the effect of plasma activation upon DVD’s ability to synthesize dense, pinhole-free electrolyte membrane layers, the hollow cathode plasma activation subsystem in the tool was activated for many of the experiments reported in this thesis. 14 illustrates the hollow cathode electron flow during plasma unit operation. During initial heat-up, the connection to the resistor is closed while the hollow cathode warms to operation temperature (Fig. 13). At ignition, the resistor circuit is broken, and the electrons generated within the hollow cathode begin to flow through the process chamber to the anode, completing a new circuit and ionizing vapor found in the free (open) space between the cathode and anode.
The anode substrates used in this study were provided by ITN Energy Systems and consisted of a cermet of YSZ and NiO fabricated via a standard tape casting process. 2, was generally cut into a 1 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm piece for deposition. The anode substrate is designed to have a porous structure to maximize the contact area between the fuel and anode material. In the fabrication process envisioned by ITN Energy Systems, the NiO in the anode would be reduced to Ni following the addition of the electrolyte membrane and cathode layers.
Morgner, Schiller, Zywitzki and others report the use of hollow cathode plasma activation to densify films of alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiOx) deposited onto polished steel sheets or plastic films [56-59]. In these systems, the hollow cathode plasma technology modifies the deposition process by intersecting the vapor stream with a low voltage electron beam (LVEB) [56-59]. The energies of these electrons are at a level that generates frequent ionization of the vapor species, with as much Chapter 2.