By Marjorie Keniston McIntosh
Among the mid fourteenth century and the terrible legislation of 1598 and 1601, English bad aid moved towards a extra coherent and complete community of help. Marjorie McIntosh's learn, the 1st to track advancements throughout that point span, makes a speciality of 3 kinds of counsel: approved begging and the solicitation of charitable alms; hospitals and almshouses for the bedridden and aged; and the help given by way of parishes. It explores altering conceptions of poverty and charity and changed roles for the church, kingdom and personal companies within the provision of reduction. The examine highlights fraud and negligence, mounting trouble with right supervision and accounting, cooperation among nationwide and decrease degrees of presidency, and the creativity of local community in responding to poverty. This groundbreaking paintings demanding situations current money owed of the negative legislation, displaying that they addressed issues of different types of reduction already in use instead of making a new method of reduction.
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Extra info for Poor Relief in England, 1350-1600
These developments contributed to a negative response to casual charitable giving among people of higher social levels. 38 William Langland expressed considerable ambivalence in Piers Plowman about older conceptions of poverty and charity as opposed to a sense that public beggars were deeply troubling, bringing shame to themselves and society. The friars evoked an increasingly hostile reaction in the later fourteenth and ﬁfteenth centuries, due to their own reliance upon begging and questionable adherence to true poverty.
If voluntary charity did not continue to provide substantial aid, and if existing forms of assistance were not well managed, the burden of compulsory payments would be proportionately greater. Spending some of one’s material resources and/or time in helping the poor was therefore a good investment. 4 Additional kinds of aid Although the three types of poor relief upon which this study focuses were signiﬁcant in terms of the number of people they helped and/or the amount of aid given, and although they are unusually well documented, they were by no means the only assistance available.
Because humanist theory stressed education, exhortation, and rhetoric – persuading people to do what was right so they would accept their obligations willingly, rather than forcing them into it – royal advisors and leaders of Parliament and the church under Edward and Elizabeth used their injunctions, statutes, homilies, and sermons to explain why both individual generosity and public action on behalf of the poor were essential. 56 The willingness of many churchwardens to implement Edwardian orders on behalf of the poor suggests that some of them were thinking about their Christian and community responsibilities in new ways.