By LA Fedorov, A. V. Yablokov
Event of all former Soviet republics with using insecticides is coming near near with the intention to safely comprehend the factors and results of pesticide dissemination everywhere in the globe. by no means in any state has quite a bit clinical and organic learn at the outcomes of pesticide use been obvious as within the USSR within the 1970's via 1980's. those facts regularly remained mystery till the 1990's. a part of this fabric is being provided right here to the Western reader for the 1st time. one of the difficulties mentioned, there are: law, keep watch over, and monetary use of insecticides in USSR agriculture; air, water and soil illness; transformation of insecticides within the atmosphere and in nutrition items; human and animal poisoning by means of types of pesticide; morbidity and mortality linked to insecticides, genetic results, and results on copy, endocrine and different platforms; bioaccumulation; insecticides as poisons for cultivated crops; pesticide resistance in objective species; connection of chemical weaponry crops with pesticide construction.
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Additional resources for Pesticides: The Chemical Weapon That Kills Life : (The USSR's Tragic Experience)
Strict Soviet censorship came into play. Dissertations on the toxicology and health standards for pesticide use began to be defended in closed scientific councils. Even dissertations on other countries’ negative experience in pesticide use [A54] were defended in 1972 in “closed” session. In 1960-80s in the USSR, much research took place, mostly within the Minzdrav system, and many dissertations were defended on the effect of pesticides on different organs and systems in the body [5, 12, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 32, 43, 47, 48, 53, 60, 63, 64, 67, 70, 71, 73, 76, 82, 89, 98, 104].
5 mg/m3): during trichlorfon solution preparation, the concentration reaches 4 mg/m3; in aircraft cabins it reaches 5 mg/m3; in tractor cabins – 4 mg/m3; in applicators’ breathing zones while spraying with a hose – 8 mg/m3; and in signalers’ breathing zones when spraying from the air – 6 mg/m3. These violations of course left traces: these people suffered from decreased cholinesterase activity, serious headaches, dizziness, and loss of appetite [A17]. Pathological and anatomical research showed that poisoning takes place with potent toxic agents (demeton , octamethyl pyrophosphoramide , and methyl parathion ); with substances of high toxicity (methylmercaptophos [6,28], dichlorvos , thiometon , dimethoate , phenkapton , vamidothion , phenthoate , phosmet , and phosalone ); with substances of medium toxicity (DEF , trichlorfon , fenitrothion , and methyl acetophos ); and with substances of low toxicity (tetrachlorvinfos ).
They accumulate in fatty tissues. The insecticide heptachlor oxidizes in the soil, and becomes a more toxic epoxide, capable of remaining for a long time. The insecticide aldrin transforms in the soil into dieldrin, maintaining its toxicity [15, 30]. Mirex (FD50=300-600 mg/kg), used to fight ants, just like kelevan (FD50=255-325 mg/kg), used to fight the Colorado beetle, transform in the soil into the more toxic chlordekon (FD50 decreases to 95-140 mg/kg) . The OPP cotton defoliant folex (merphos) is relatively toxic to mammals.