By Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Weight problems has risen to the pinnacle of the general public healthiness coverage schedule world wide. sooner than 1980, premiums have been commonly good under 10%. they've got due to the fact that doubled or tripled in lots of international locations, and in virtually 1/2 the OECD, 50% or extra of the inhabitants is obese. A key possibility issue for varied continual ailments, weight problems is a huge public wellbeing and fitness obstacle. there's a well known conception that factors for the weight problems epidemic are uncomplicated and suggestions within sight. however the facts display a extra advanced photograph, one within which even discovering aim facts at the phenomenon is hard. coverage makers, health and wellbeing pros and teachers all face demanding situations in realizing the epidemic and devising potent counter techniques. This booklet contributes to evidence-based coverage making through exploring a number of dimensions of the weight problems challenge. It examines the dimensions and features of the epidemic, the respective roles and impression of marketplace forces and governments, and the influence of interventions. It outlines an monetary method of the prevention of persistent illnesses that offers novel insights relative to a extra conventional public wellbeing and fitness strategy. The research used to be undertaken via the OECD, in part in collaboration with the area healthiness association. the most chapters are complemented by way of designated contributions from future health and weight problems specialists, together with Marc Suhrcke, Tim Lobstein, Donald Kenkel and Francesco Branca. "This publication provides a necessary set of effects and recommendations concerning the most sensible preventive interventions to lessen the load of weight problems. it's going to relief any state fascinated about this burden in defining public guidelines aimed toward changing present trends." Julio Frenk, Dean, Harvard tuition of Public healthiness "The optimistic message of this ebook is that the weight problems epidemic could be effectively addressed by means of accomplished innovations related to a number of interventions directed at participants and populations." Ala Alwan, Assistant Director-General, international wellbeing and fitness association "This cutting edge and well-researched booklet combines insights from quite a lot of disciplines. It offers a transparent exposition of the proof that coverage makers have to take action." Martin McKee, Professor of ecu Public well-being, London university of Hygiene & Tropical medication
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Additional info for Obesity and the Economics of Prevention: Fit not Fat
While disability decreased in the latter group, it increased among the obese between the late 1980s and the early 2000s (Alley and Chang, 2007). , 2005). The economic costs of obesity The strong association between obesity and chronic diseases suggests that the obese are likely to make a disproportionate use of health care, leading to a substantially larger expenditure relative to normal weight individuals. A wealth of studies has shown this based on data from at least 14 OECD countries and some non-OECD countries, mostly focusing on medical care expenditures.
The ability of individuals (obese and not obese) to make choices that would maximise their own welfare is limited. Even if all individuals were perfectly rational, the environment in which they live could still prevent them from making the best possible choices. O’Donoghue and Rabin (2003) emphasise that “economists will and should be ignored if [they] continue to insist that it is axiomatic that constantly trading stocks or accumulating consumer debt or becoming a heroin addict must be optimal for the people doing these things merely because they have chosen to do it”.
The vast majority of studies on the microeconomic consequences of adult health focus on labour market outcomes (Currie and Madrian, 1999). Ill health reduces labour productivity measured by earnings (Contoyannis and Rice, 2001; Jäckle, 2007) and is important in shaping labour supply (García Gómez, 2008; Gannon, 2005). , 2006). Although there is a significant literature on the impact of risk factors on labour market outcomes, surprisingly few studies have examined the labour market impact of smoking in itself, although several studies examine simultaneous effects of smoking and drinking (Auld, 2005; Lee, 1999; Lye and Hirschberg, 2004; van Ours, 2004).