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Yield, SNM cost vs. yield, and radiation output (X-rays, neutrons, and gammarays) are included. One-dimensional calculations have been the source of handbook information prior to the latest revision of the Red Book. Validation of the results has been based on the limited underground test data generated for this purpose up to the cessation of underground testing. Promising advances, enabled by DOE’s Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, are currently being made in computational transport algorithm development that will extend our ability to calculate the output of devices of critical interest to the nation and help mitigate the limited test data set.

Some experiments were conducted in an evacuated pipe with a direct line of sight to the nuclear device. Other experiments used a modified X-ray environment produced by scattering X-rays in a specially designed scatter station. The scatter station increased the temporal pulse width, reduced the intensity of neutrons and γ-rays relative to X-rays, and changed the X-ray energy spectrum. In both cases, filters were used to further modify the X-ray energy spectrum. While there were practical limits on how much the X-ray spectrum and pulse width could be modified, the X-ray fluence was essentially unlimited.

While impressive progress is being made in each of these areas, we are far from having a comprehensive, validated capability to simulate these phenomena. Each new assessment project is likely to identify gaps in capability that warrant further research. DTRA has maintained a suite of legacy computer codes for modeling radiation effects. These are mostly one-dimensional codes that can approximate the response of complex systems, but often with large uncertainties. Within the Advanced Strategic Computing Program, DOE has sponsored the development of more sophisticated threedimensional tools to support the assessment of replacement components in nuclear weapons.

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