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Download Nuclear Energy. An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems, by Raymond L. Murray PDF

By Raymond L. Murray

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1 shows Rutherford's experiment Stream of alpha particles o- Light flashes " · Radioactive source Detecting screen Nitrogen gas Helium («) Before collision \_J m " Nitr °Sen [ ) After collision Oxygen Hydrogen (proton) Fig. 1. Transmutation by nuclear reaction. Neutron Reactions 33 the reaction schematically. It is difficult for the alpha particle to enter the nitrogen nucleus because of the electrostatic repulsion of the two positively charged interacting nuclei. Thus the alpha particle must have several million-electron-volts of energy.

Calculate the energy in electron-volts of the electron orbit in hydrogen for which n = 3, and find the radius in centimeters. How much energy would be needed to cause an electron to go from the innermost orbit to this one? If the electron jumped back, what frequency of light would be observed? 5. Sketch the atomic and nuclear structure of carbon-14, noting Z and A values and the numbers of electrons, protons, and neutrons. 6. What is the radius of the nucleus of uranium-238 viewed as a sphere? What is the area of the nucleus, seen from a distance as a circle?

Conservation laws apply to each—that of charge, number of particles involved, and mass-energy. Reactions are similar in appearance. To illustrate, let us first write the simple equation describing the formation of water 2H + 0 = H 2 0. 4 eV per molecule of water. Compare this with the reaction of a neutron with a proton, the nucleus of hydrogen, to form a deuteron, the nucleus of deuterium. in + ÎH-»ÎH + y. 2 MeV. We note that the energy release in this nuclear reaction is about a million times as great as for the chemical or atomic reaction.

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