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Download Nuclear chemical engineering by Manson Benedict PDF

By Manson Benedict

Ebook by way of Manson Benedict, Thomas H. Pigford, Hans Wolfgang Levi

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43) where n is the average concentration of neutrons of speed v throughout the reactor. The rate constant K L varies as the surfacevolume ratio of the reactor and is usually affected but little by neutron speed. From Eq. 43)it follows that neutron consumption by leakage increases with neutron speed. On the other hand, the cross sections for fission decrease markedly as neutron speed increases. Unless fissionable fuel in a highly concentrated form is available, it is then necessary to reduce the neutron speed to obtain the proper balance between neutron production and consumption.

18) - xi> k=l kZi When a radionuclide decays to a daughter of half-life much shorter than that of its parent, the daughter builds up to an amount that remains in constant ratio to the amount of the parent, and the amount of the daughter then decreases at a rate controlled by the half-life of the parent. In this case, the daughter is said to be in equilibrium with the parent, even though the amount of the parent radionuclide may be changing with time. For example, for the batch decay scheme that led to Eq.

Is now the specially defined effective cross section that, when multiplied by the “2200 m/s flux” 6, gives the proper reaction rate constant. From Eqs. 63) From Eqs. 65) The epithermal flux distribution $E(Qcan be approximated by a 1/E energy dependence above some lawer cutoff energy of pkT, and it can be normalized to the integrated thermal flux +M by a factor j3. 66) where A is the unit step function at pkT energy. A typical value of p for a well-moderated reactor is 5 . By substituting Eqs. 67) which will be used in solving the integral of &.

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