By Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb, a player within the 1996-97 and 2000 Inter-governmental meetings analyzes the evolution of versatile integration from the early Nineteen Seventies to the current day and past. He focuses within the means of negotiations which ended in the institutionalization of suppleness within the Amsterdam and great Treaties. This e-book offers a worthwhile insider's view on old decision-making within the european.
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Extra info for Negotiating Flexibility in the European Union: Amsterdam, Nice and Beyond
This form of thinking is also called symmetrically prescriptive (Raiffa 1982). The prescribers are interested in how the actors should or ought to behave, rather than how they actually behave. The rationalists see the negotiator as trying to maximise his own pay-off (Bartos 1977) and thus the individual negotiator is seen as inherently competitive. Game theory sees every negotiating situation as a game. It follows economic models of rational agents which, the rationalists claim, serve prescriptions in a rational world (Bazerman and Neale 1991).
Compromise, coalition building, side-payments and time constraints There are further considerations which relate to the negotiating process: compromise, coalition building, side-payments and time constraints. Compromise is essential to any negotiation and it cannot be achieved if there is not an agreement among the participants that the ﬁnal outcome is binding. In IGCs it is often the Presidency, aided by the institutional memory of the Council Secretariat, which hammers out a compromise among the Member States.
In essence, the notion of bounded rationality will run as a leitmotif throughout the analysis. Bounded rationality will explain why the negotiators held speciﬁc positions in the agenda-setting, decision-shaping and decision-taking stages. It will also be shown that bounded rationality has direct consequences on the analysis of the negotiating environment, process and styles. Conclusion The aim of this chapter has been to highlight some of the issues relating to the environment, process and styles of IGC negotiations.