By Philip T. English DCR, Christine Moore DCR (auth.)
One of an important advancements in diagnostic imaging over the past decade has been magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Its skill to distinguish among tissues and provides patholog ical information regarding illnesses has ended in prior remedy, therefore expanding the chance of restoration. the photographs produced utilizing this method supply very good anatomical element in any aircraft and are got with no using ionising radiation. The elevated use of MRI has offered radiographers with a couple of demanding situations, and since we're now not facing ionising radiation knowing the topic can a few instances be complicated. we are hoping that this article is going to aid radiographers and pupil radiographers to extra their wisdom and get to the bottom of the mysteries of MRI. Philip T. English Christine Moore Contents 1 simple ideas . . . . . . . . . 1 background ..... . 1 Atomic thought . . 1 Magnetic conception . 2 Resonance four rest. . . . . five 2 Instrumentation........ nine The Magnet .. nine Shim Coils ........... . 12 Gradient Coils ......... . thirteen RF Transmitter/Receiver Coils. 14 the pc . . . . . . . . . 18 three Pulse Sequences. . . . . . . . . 19 Saturation restoration (Partial Saturation) 19 Spin Echo (SE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 a number of Spin Echo. . . . . . . . . . . 22 quick Spin Echo (FSE) or faster Spin Echo (TSE). 23 Inversion restoration (IR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Gradient Echo .................. . 28 Magnetisation move distinction Imaging (MTC) 34 four snapshot creation. . . . . . . .
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This is achieved by the use of a gradient magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the slice. This means that according to the Larmor equation the resonant frequency of protons will vary depending on their posi- 38 Image Production tion along the axis of the imposed gradient. If RF energy of a specific frequency (or a narrow range of frequencies) is applied to the tissue volume, only the protons in the tissue corresponding to the frequency of the RF pulse as determined by the magnetic field gradient will be excited.
The 1800 RF pulse inverts the phase loss. -_ G Phase D L G Frequency Signal Fig. 5. SE pulse sequence II1dicating the timing of the three gradIents (slice. phase and frequency). (higher phase-encoding gradient values) provide the detail of the image. In conventional two-dimensional imaging one line of K-space is collected for each phase-encoding step during acquisition and therefore: Acquisition time = No. e. the positive phase-encoding values are symmetrical with the negative values. This can be seen in Fig.
There is an obvIOUS improvement in the SNR which in turn leads to an improved CNR. intrinsic properties which we have no control over. Principally these are Tl, T2, proton density, chemical shift and flow. It is the selection of the appropriate pulse sequence which enables the detection of these differences. The pulse sequences themselves have a number of different selectable parameters which control the intensity of the signal and effectively give the desired contrast in the image. These are TR, TE, TI and the flip angle, which were discussed in Chapter 3.