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Download Modern France: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Vanessa R. Schwartz PDF

By Vanessa R. Schwartz

During this Very brief creation, Vanessa Schwartz argues that glossy France, as either an international level and an international crossroads, is a necessary actor within the improvement of latest tradition. I

ndeed, French is the single language except English spoken on 5 continents, and extra humans nonetheless stopover at France than anyplace else on the earth. French model keeps to dominate high fashion and, while, French individuals are on the vanguard of overseas "style," which was once as actual within the first 1/2 the 20 th century because it is at the present time. This stress among "Frenchness" as either specific and transnational continues to be probably the most compelling characteristics of the tradition. If French tradition and tradition manufacturers are operating world wide, if Paris is a world capital, the surprise is that France nonetheless manages to draw viewers from world wide looking for the drama of its historical castles and important battlefields, its greater than three hundred cheeses and the well known wines grown in its wealthy soil.

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Extra info for Modern France: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

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Mais a contrario, il faut personnifier un minimum le groupe concerne´ pour e´viter justement qu’il soit trop abstrait et donc insaisissable, ce qui explique pourquoi un quartier (Wall Street) ou un groupe ethnique (les Juifs) peut parfois personnifier tous les proble`mes de la socie´te´ (Lipset & Raab 1973: 16). 2 La deuxie`me cate´gorie d’acteurs Le sche´ma narratif de base de la the´orie du complot implique une deuxie`me cate´gorie d’acteurs dont les caracte´ristiques peuvent eˆtre de´duites de la premie`re cate´gorie d’acteurs.

Barkun donne l’exemple des partis politiques dont l’existence et les objectifs sont clairement affirme´s. On pourrait aussi mentionner ici le ‘capitalisme apatride’ ou la ‘haute finance’ en tant qu’ensemble d’acteurs dont l’identite´ ne doit pas obligatoirement eˆtre secre`te et dont les activite´s et les objectifs sont clairement affirme´s et de´fendus comme tels: veiller a` l’enrichissement des actionnaires. Encore une fois, ce n’est pas la re´alite´ qui compte ici mais la perception de l’individu ou du groupe qui voit des conspirateurs.

Un peu plus loin, Girard ajoute que les ‘perse´cuteurs finissent toujours par se convaincre qu’un petit nombre d’individus, ou meˆme un seul, peut se rendre extreˆmement nuisible a` la socie´te´ tout entie`re, en de´pit de sa faiblesse relative’. Et que la foule dans ce contexte, cherche l’action sans pouvoir agir sur les causes naturelles de ce qui la trouble. ‘Elle cherche (…) une cause accessible et qui assouvisse son appe´tit de violence’. Ainsi, conclut-il, ‘les membres de la foule sont toujours des perse´cuteurs en puissance car ils reˆvent de purger la communaute´ des e´le´ments impurs qui la corrompent, des traıˆtres qui la subvertissent’ (Girard 1982: 25 et 26).

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