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Reading how major constructing international locations are more and more shaping overseas fiscal negotiations, this publication makes use of the case experiences of India and South Africa to illustrate the power of states to exert diplomatic effect via various bargaining ideas and symbolize the pursuits of the constructing global in international governance.
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Extra info for Middle Powers in World Trade Diplomacy: India, South Africa and the Doha Development Agenda
Antagonism between middle powers naturally erupted since “ﬁnding a niche for each state and non-state actor is clearly an impossibility no matter how many global issues appear” (Shaw, 1994, p. 20). Despite their relative, more accommodative stance, WMPs have also practiced variants of reform internationalism. The Nordic middle powers attempted to reform the global economy through the North–South dialogue of the 1970s and 1980s (Pratt, 1990, pp. 9–10; Stokke, 1989, pp. 12–14). Such reform internationalism aimed at the redistribution of income and resources from rich to poor nations.
Consequently, they “attempt to ﬁnd for themselves a position within the established order from which they can offer and defend non-status quo interests” (ibid). Their participation in status quo institutions reﬂects “an interest in protecting the international system and the participant state’s current or desired position in that system” (ibid, emphasis in original). The general proposition that SMPs act in support of the status quo does not preclude the possibility that these states may follow more assertive or even confrontational types of foreign policy to improve their systemic position.
SMPs have historically operated at the margins of this order, having pursued variants of revisionism and Third Worldism. They now increasingly seek the reform of global governance in order to realign power hierarchies within multilateral institutions and achieve their recognition within the existing order. In comparison to WMPs, the internationalist role of SMPs is also more entangled to their position of dominance at the regional level (Jordaan, 2003). WMPs have historically been more detached from their regional environment, being located in regions where inter-state rivalry has been minimal or absent.