By Korukonda L. Murty
A significant aim of this publication is to bring about matters confronting the nuclear by way of fabrics getting older and degrading with specific emphasis on mechanisms and administration. it's a compilation of chapters written by way of specialists within the box and is split into 3 elements: primary getting older matters and degradation mechanisms, fabrics getting older and degradation particularly mild water reactor elements, and fabrics administration recommendations for mild water reactors.
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Additional resources for Materials' ageing and degradation in light water reactors: Mechanisms and management
These various phenomena will be discussed in detail in the following sections. 1 Mechanical behaviour It was mentioned in earlier sections that BCC materials such as iron and some steels show a distinct yield point (Fig. 13) where as FCC and HCP materials show a continuous transition from elastic to plastic range (Fig. 3). The distinct yield point is due to the locking of the dislocation sources by interstitial impurities such as C and N in low alloy steels that increases the stress resulting in a sudden increase in free or mobile dislocation density.
E. a crack appears). The accumulation of strain energy is facilitated by the presence of a notch or scratch and the surface energy is the minimum for the exposed crack than the embedded one. Often, the fracture surface is perpendicular to the direction of the applied stress and a compressive residual stress is beneficial in delaying the fatigue failure. Fatigue life is represented by a plot of applied stress (S) against the number of cycles to failure (Nf) known as the S–N curves. 6 depicts the S–N curves for various metals8 and we note that ferrous metals exhibit a distinct ‘endurance’ limit below which fatigue failures do not occur whereas nonferrous metals do not seem to exhibit such a limit, albeit the slope of the S–N curve decreases at very high cycles.
The various oxidation processes in Zircaloys have led to major degradation phenomena that are described in detail in subsequent chapters. Stable, adherent oxide films form which act as a protective coating and offer resistance to environmental cracking as in the case of stainless steels. However, in the case of Zircaloys long exposures lead to the film flaking – that results in wall thinning – which in some cases may result in through-wall failures. More and specific details can be found in the chapters on Zr-alloys in Part II.