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Additional info for Management of Persons Contaminated With Radionuclides: Handbook
Projection of eventual cancer or hereditary effects is expressed in probabilistic terms. Because their occurrence is not certain, but described by a ©NCRP 2009 – All rights reserved. This electronic file was provided to Transmedia Booksellers Single user authorization only, copying and networking prohibited. 8 HEALTH EFFECTS FROM RADIATION EXPOSURES / 319 given probability, these are called stochastic effects. Significant repair of nonlethal mutational events and subsequent reduction of stochastic effects is not generally believed to occur, although “Experimental investigations tend to show that fractionation or protraction of dose is associated with reduced risk…” (ICRP, 2007).
The remainder is absorbed very slowly, with a half-time of ~7,000 d. 3) or to biological clearance from the respiratory tract or organs and tissues in which they may subsequently be deposited. The effect of the ICRP model’s default values can be summarized as follows (ICRP, 1994a): • Type F, nearly 100 % of the material deposited in the posterior nasal and oral passages and in the thoracic region is absorbed into the blood. There is rapid absorption of almost all material deposited in the thoracic region and 50 % of material deposited in the posterior nasal and oral passages.
Deterministic effects generally result from high doses received over a short period of time (acute exposures), perhaps up to a few weeks, and most of these effects occur shortly after the exposure. However, some deterministic effects can occur later, and some can result from protracted irradiation at high doses. The latter are the deterministic effects most likely to be observed after high intakes of radionuclides, where the doses may be protracted over many weeks and years. The effectiveness of low-LET radiation in producing deterministic effects is generally decreased when the irradiation is protracted over a long period, as from the deposition of longlived radionuclides, or fractionated and given in increments over days or weeks.