Home Light • Download Magnetism. / Vol. 2, Materials and applications by Etienne Du Trémolet de Lacheisserie; D Gignoux; M Schlenker PDF

Download Magnetism. / Vol. 2, Materials and applications by Etienne Du Trémolet de Lacheisserie; D Gignoux; M Schlenker PDF

By Etienne Du Trémolet de Lacheisserie; D Gignoux; M Schlenker

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10. 2 Principle of Mode-Locking in Semiconductor Lasers Temporal Aspect of Mode-Locked State [9]. Mode-locking is the coupling of the eigenmodes of semiconductor lasers with the same mode spacing and the same phase. 0 þ 2mfÞt þ Š The frequency f is close to the mode spacing as c fffi 2nL ð22Þ ð23Þ The coupled modes perform as a single mode, which is called supermode. An interesting effect is that the light power pulsates in such a mode-locked state. The repetition rate of the pulses corresponds to the frequency f.

Let us find a driving force generated by electrostatic comb actuators. Consider two combs forming an interdigit structure spaced by d acting as a capacitor, as shown in Fig. 4. Suppose that a comb is DC-biased by V to remain stationary under an external force F. When the comb is displaced by dx along the x-axis against the external force, the potential energy is changed by the external force as W ¼ ÀF x ð1Þ This displacement changes the electrostatic energy of the capacitance. Assuming that this energy change is given by the change transfer dQ, we can Copyright © 2005 Marcel Dekker, Inc.

5b). This angular momentum is also a source of the driving force for rotary actuation. This mechanism is generally extended to the rotary actuation based on angular momentum transformation. 1 Usage of Photothermal Conversion Vibration Excitation by Photothermal Stress (Optical Oscillating Sensor) When the thermal effect of optical energy (absorption) is used, optical energy can be converted to mechanical energy. This type of generation of mechanical energy is called photothermal drive. This enables the noncontact drive of a minute object.

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