By Jon Elster
A scientific research of the primary associations use in allocating scarce items and beneficial burdens. It examines the standards through which scholars are admitted to varsity, the empirical, conceptual, explanatory and evaluative features of such matters.
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Extra info for Local Justice: How Institutions Allocate Scarce Goods & Necessary Burdens
The use of local lists can affect efficiency, both posi tively (by creating incentives for organ procurement) and nega tively (by making it less likely that a good matching is found) . Local lists can also have a negative impact on equity, b y adding "geographical bad luck" to the medical bad luck that I mentioned earlier. In later chapters I shall return. to other aspects of the schemes for allocating kidneys and other organs, notably hearts and livers. With respect to the latter organs, the main tension does not seem to be between efficiency and equity.
LAyoffs. Jobs are among the most basic goods. f jobs or, equivalently, selection of workers to fill slots takes place m three contexts: hiring, promotion, and layoffs. Of these, hiring and layoffs are the most importan t, since they can determine whet er one s all hold a job at all. In private firms, hiring is margt�al as an Issue of local justice. " Problems of Local Justice 39 tion to take account of the applicants' need, desert, or "seniority" (which in this case would be length of unemployment) .
Getting out of the army. Once you are in the army, it can matter when you get out. When a war is over, soldiers are eager to get back to civilian life. Yet for all sorts of reasons, it may not be possible to release everybody simultaneously. Who, then, should be allowed to leave the army first? The American army in World War II took this problem sufficiently seriously to design and im plement a complicated point system. 47 Both the scheme and the method by which it was determined are of considerable interest.