By Gilles Deleuze
Lettres et autres textes est le troisième et dernier quantity des textes posthumes de Gilles Deleuze, publié à l’occasion du vingtième anniversaire de sa disparition. Il regroupe de nombreuses lettres adressées à ses contemporains (Michel Foucault, Pierre Klossowski, François Châtelet ou Clément Rosset). Particulièrement importantes à cet égard sont les lettres adressées à Félix Guattari, qui constituent un témoignage irremplaçable sur leur « travail à deux », de L’Anti-Œdipe jusqu’à Qu’est-ce que l. a. philosophie ? On y trouve aussi des lettres plus tardives adressées à des étudiants qui l’interrogent sur son œuvre et lui permettent de l’éclairer d’un regard nouveau. Y figurent également un ensemble de textes introuvables ou inédits, comme certains essais de jeunesse, quelques dessins insolites, ou un lengthy entretien de 1973 sur L’Anti-Œdipe avec Guattari.
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Additional info for Lettres et autres textes
Is Kant’s Idealism Subjective? 2 THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PROBLEM It will be helpful to review familiar, but important, general features of Kant’s epistemology. Kant distinguishes fundamentally between two heterogeneous factors in all human knowledge: concepts on the one hand and intuitions on the other. These two factors correspond to two distinct faculties of human cognition: the faculty of thought or of the understanding on the one hand and the faculty of sensibility on the other. This distinction in faculties gives expression to the fact that we human beings are both active and passive in our knowledge: active insofar as we think objects, but passive insofar as objects impress themselves upon our sensibility.
However, Kant’s idealism is subjective idealism, according to Hegel, because the thought determinations (the categories) that constitute objectivity are ‘again subjective’. Hegel does not mean, obviously, that the categories are subjective in the sense of being contingent, private, particular representations, since it is exactly as universal and necessary that they constitute the objectivity of representation. In what sense are the categories ‘again subjective’, then, if they are ‘universal and necessary determinations’, and, as such, constitutive of the objectivity of representation?
Henry Allison’s account is explicit on this point. Kant ﬁnds in reﬂecting on the possibility of our knowledge that empirical knowledge—knowledge of objects that are mind-independent from the empirical standpoint—has certain a priori conditions. ⁴ A psychological condition would be merely a condition we need in order to know the object, rather than a condition through which alone the object, as object of knowledge, is possible for us at all. ) Nevertheless, such conditions are not ontological, since they do not condition things themselves, but only objects qua objects of knowledge or experience.