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Download Laser-tissue interactions: fundamentals and applications by Markolf H. Niemz PDF

By Markolf H. Niemz

Laser-Tissue Interactions offers an intensive description of the basics and functions during this box. easy thoughts akin to the optical and thermal houses of tissue, some of the forms of tissue ablation, and optical breakdown and its similar results are taken care of intimately. distinct cognizance is given to mathematical instruments (Monte Carlo simulations, the Kubelka--Munk conception etc.) and licensed ideas (photodynamic remedy, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy etc.). The half on purposes stories clinically proper equipment in smooth medication utilizing the most recent references. The final bankruptcy covers modern day criteria of laser security, with a cautious choice of crucial directions released by way of the Laser Institute of the United States. a variety of study pictures, illustrations, tables and complete summaries make this publication an invaluable consultant for graduate scholars, scientists, and clinical practitioners. New end-of-chapter routines supply readers with the chance to ascertain their figuring out of key ideas and strategies.

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Example text

Geometry of Rayleigh scattering In Fig. 6, a simple geometry of Rayleigh scattering is shown. A plane electromagnetic wave is incident on a thin scattering medium with a total thickness L. At a particular time, the electric field of the incident wave can be expressed by E(z) = E0 exp(ikz) , 20 2. Light and Matter where E0 is the amplitude of the incident electric field, k is the amount of the propagation vector, and z denotes the optical axis. In a first approximation, we assume that the wave reaching some point P on the optical axis will essentially be the original wave, plus a small contribution due to scattering.

1987b), and Parsa et al. (1989) that photons are preferably scattered in the forward direction. This phenomenon cannot be explained by Rayleigh scattering. On the other hand, the observed wavelength-dependence is somewhat stronger than predicted by Mie scattering. Thus, neither Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering completely describe scattering in tissues. Therefore, it is very convenient to define a probability function p(θ) of a photon to be scattered by an angle θ which can be fitted to experimental data.

On the other hand, the observed wavelength-dependence is somewhat stronger than predicted by Mie scattering. Thus, neither Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering completely describe scattering in tissues. Therefore, it is very convenient to define a probability function p(θ) of a photon to be scattered by an angle θ which can be fitted to experimental data. If p(θ) does not depend on θ, we speak of isotropic scattering. Otherwise, anisotropic scattering occurs. A measure of the anisotropy of scattering is given by the coefficient of anisotropy g, where g = 1 denotes purely forward scattering, g = −1 purely backward scattering, and g = 0 isotropic scattering.

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