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Download Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900 by Barbara D. Metcalf PDF

By Barbara D. Metcalf

In a research of the power of Islam in late-nineteenth-century north India, Barbara Metcalf explains the reaction of Islamic spiritual students ('ulama) to the colonial dominance of the British and the cave in of Muslim political strength.

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See Satish Chandra, Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court: 1700-40 (Aligarh, 1959). 18. J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Ishm (Oxford, 1971) presents an analysis of the routinization of charisma in these shrines and the consequent stability and popular influence this afforded. D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1979) for an excellent discussion of the shrine-based Punjabi pirs. 19 At the same time, in each area movements of revitalization endowed the pirs with religious charisma of their own in addition to the authority derived from the shrine itself.

Nizami, "Hind," EP, III. 45. De Bary, Sources of Indian Tradition, I, 454. 46. Muhammad Ikram, Rud-i Kausar, p. 536. 47. For descriptions of Shi'i customs, particularly in the successor state of Oudh, see Mrs. Meer Hasan AIi, Observations on the Mussulmans of India (London, 1832), an account of an English woman who married into a respectable Shi'i family of Lucknow; and Sharar, Guzashtah Lakhnau. For an account of the Shi'ah in the Deccan, see Ja'far Sharif, Islam in India or the Qanun-i-Ishm, translated by G.

Were learned Muslims to study revelation, they could unite in obedience to authentic teachings. He argued that the "door to ijtihad," in the classical phrase, was not closed, and that those skilled in the traditional sciences had the right and indeed the responsibility to consult original sources. 37 He did not deny the high worth of the writings of the imams of the law schools, but rather believed they should be used in the light of hadis. An 'alim, he argued, should know the judgments of all the law schools and consult them eclectically, using whichever accorded best with hadis.

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