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Download Introducing Philosophy of Science: A Graphic Guide by Ziauddin Sardar PDF

By Ziauddin Sardar

What do scientists really do? Is technology "value-free"? How has technological know-how developed via historical past? the place is technological know-how major us? "Introducing Philosophy of Science" is a transparent and incisively illustrated map of the large questions underpinning technology. it truly is crucial examining for college kids, most of the people, or even scientists themselves.

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As crystals of this their common social substance, they are values- commodity values. (Marx 1 977b, 1 28) There is a striking, nonaccidental resemblance between this passage and the one in which Descartes draws his conclusion about the bit turned blob of wax. 11 Descartes and Marx face similar conundrums : How can two objects totally dissimilar in their sensuous qualities - the bit and the blob of wax-be the same? How can two qualitatively dissimilar commodities be identical in terms of value?

To the eyes of capital, the earth and human labor are valueless in themselves, j ust as in absolute idealism's scheme of things, "Nature as nature . . is senseless" (Marx 1 964, 190) . By forgetting their sources, both the idea's course of externalization, which treads the logical path of the negation of the negation on a grand scale, and capital's cycle of negations (buying, producing, selling) in the process of valorization condemn themselves to a hellish running in spirals. These last considerations set up an observation about Capital to which we will return, namely, that Marx frames the logic of capital in terms of his own construal of Hegel's logic of the concept, according to which it fails to break free of the antinomies of the logic of essence.

In this chapter I hope to make plainer the dialectical logic of the value-form as Marx presents it. To aid in this I trace the history of Marx's engagement with Hegel's philosophy-his logic in particular- showing how Marx acquired the conceptual resources that enabled him to overcome Ricardo's theories of value and capital. Unless the distinctive logic operating in Marx's theories of value and capital is appreciated, his unique achievements go unrecognized. Contrary to Joan Robinson's complaint that smatterings of "Hegelian stuff and nonsense" botch up Capital, I argue that it is precisely the lessons learned from Hegel that make Capital great.

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