By Ron D. Frostig
In Vivo Optical Imaging of mind functionality brings jointly, for the 1st time, a evaluate of the wide range of optical imaging concepts that experience lately emerged for the categorical examine of job within the dwelling mind, in addition to their.
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Extra resources for In vivo optical imaging of brain function
However, at present it is still difficult to estimate to what extent the red light penetrates in vivo and, consequently, to what extent different cortical layers, especially the deeper layers, contribute to the collected data. 5 BIOLOGICAL NOISE Two types of biological noise are typically present when imaging IS with red illumination, both of which exhibit magnitude changes much larger than those of stimulus-evoked IS: 1) global, spontaneous fluctuations in oxygenation and 2) local fluctuations overlying surface blood vessels.
Typically, optical images can have more than 300 × 300 = O(105) pixels, and more than O(103) images are acquired in the course of an experiment. We may ask whether there is a better space than the raw pixel state space in which to represent the faces. What is meant by “better” will emerge from our discussion, but for the moment we seek a more compact way of treating an ensemble of faces. * As it now stands, specification of a face requires specification of gray scales at O(104) locations or, as stated earlier, a point in a space of O(104) dimensions.
Often such images are obtained at a high rate; sometimes ©2002 CRC Press LLC (for example, in studies that employ voltage-sensitive dyes) the frame rate can exceed 1000 frames/sec. Even at the more moderate frame rates used in optical imaging of intrinsic signals from the brain, the data rates are formidable: at 30 frames/sec, the data rate is 640 × 480 × 12 × 30 × 3600 = 49,766,400,000 bits per h, or over 49 gigabytes/h. The sheer size of such data sets presents technical problems of storage and processing, even with today’s rapidly advancing technology.