By Sarah Smith, Don Sinclair, Rosalind Raine, Barnaby Reeves
No country can have enough money to supply all of the healthiness care that its inhabitants wishes. nations can, besides the fact that, make certain they receive the best make the most of these assets on hand for health and wellbeing care. overview of future health care can assist make sure which providers can be supplied and the way they need to top be prepared and brought. This publication analyses health and wellbeing care interventions, from particular remedies to entire supply structures, when it comes to 4 key dimensions: effectiveness, potency, humanity and fairness.
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Extra resources for Health Care Evaluation (Understanding Public Health)
2 Suppose that you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of a new treatment for patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). Write down the disease outcomes that you would use and some examples of how you would measure them. The key to this activity lies in thinking what might happen to a patient who has suffered from a heart attack. Feedback You could have included such outcomes as: • death – could be recorded as the proportion of myocardial infarction patients dying within a specified time after admission • further myocardial infarction (reinfarction) – could be measured as the proportion of patients suffering another myocardial infarction following discharge • angina (chest pain of varying severity) – could be measured in terms of exercise tolerance, frequency of chest pain events per week or using a standardized pain instrument administered before and after the treatment • heart failure – could be measured as the proportion of patients who experienced heart failure after the treatment (using ICD criteria) • recovery (full or partial) – could be measured using standardized functional ability or health status instrument administered before and after the treatment Note that you could also measure co-morbidity (using for example, the Charlson Index or the Index of Co-existent Disease) to establish whether the group receiving the new treatment had a similar amount of co-existent disease as the group receiving the standard treatment.
The point prevalence measure is often compared to a snapshot of the population. It states the position at a single point in time. 1 Measures of morbidity • Incidence: The number of new cases of a disease occurring per unit of population per unit time • Point prevalence: The number of people with a disease in a defined population at a point in time • Period prevalence: The number of people with a disease in a defined population over a period of time. Source: Donaldson and Donaldson (1994) 26 Measuring disease, health status and HRQL cases.
Bullinger et al. (1996) provide a useful summary of three main ways that crosscultural instruments can be developed. Firstly in the sequential approach the instrument is initially developed and validated in the original language. It is then translated and back-translated and the resulting versions are rated for conceptual equivalence, colloquial language and clarity. The new instrument is then tested for feasibility, acceptability and comprehension. The equivalence of the response scales is then tested statistically and the psychometric properties of the instrument are then re-evaluated.