By Jytte (EDT)/ Maier, Charles S. (EDT) Klausen
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Extra resources for Has Liberalism Failed Women?: Assuring Equal Representation in Europe and the United States
House of Representatives, see Mansbridge “Should Black,” 648. 8. Two of Anne Phillips’s four “key arguments” for descriptive representation can be seen as variants of the argument from uncrystallized interests. Both “the need to tackle those exclusions that are inherent in the party-packaging of political ideas” and “the importance of a politics of transformation in opening up the full range of policy options” (Anne Phillips, The Politics of Presence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 25; see also 43–45, 50, 70, 151ff) are particularly strong when political ideas are uncrystallized.
Adjudication through third parties: Courts and trials are means of conflict resolution that are based upon the presumption of neutral- The Politics of Parity 45 ity and noninvolvement. As in all bipolar conflicts, there is no conceivable equidistant third party that could credibly lay claim to neutrality and fairness (by virtue, as it were, of being neither male nor female). 5. Debate and deliberation: This method is good for the resolution of conflicts of ideas, norms and principles, with the presumed inherent and symmetrical potential that the better reasons given persuade and help ultimately to win over the other side, the assumption being that all sides involved partake in the human capacity of reason and hence the ability to tell a better argument or proposal from a less reasonable or less consistent one.
As gender conflicts are typically framed as “identity” conflicts, with the reasons given by either side being coded by the other side, at least under postmodern epistemological premises, as inherently gender specific and gender biased, little can be accomplished by the methods of political discourse and public deliberation. 6. Privatization and gag rules: These methods have been valuable means to resolve conflicts over religious beliefs. They presuppose a consensus that the substance of conflict is either not capable of being resolved through political means or not sufficiently relevant to be made the object of collectively binding decisions, or that attempted political conflict resolution will by some necessity intensify rather than settle the conflict.