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Download Guns, germs, and steel : the fates of human societies by Jared M. Diamond PDF

By Jared M. Diamond

Dismantles racially established theories of human historical past via revealing the environmental components he feels are accountable for history's broadest patterns.

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"Fascinating... Lays a starting place for knowing human history."-Bill Gates Read more...

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Guns, germs, and steel : the fates of human societies

Dismantles racially dependent theories of human historical past via revealing the environmental components he feels are accountable for history's broadest styles. summary: "Fascinating. .. Lays a origin for realizing human historical past. "-Bill Gates learn extra. ..

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Sample text

The conversation remained friendly, even though the tension between the two societies that Yali and I represented was familiar to both of us. ” That is, they still used stone tools similar to those superseded in Europe by metal tools thousands of years ago, and they dwelt in villages not organized under any centralized political authority. Whites had arrived, imposed centralized government, and brought material goods whose value New Guineans instantly recognized, ranging from steel axes, matches, and medicines to clothing, soft drinks, and umbrellas.

We can identify the chain of proximate factors that enabled Pizarro to capture Atahuallpa, and that operated in European conquests of other Native American societies as well. Those factors included Spanish germs, horses, literacy, political organization, and technology (especially ships and weapons). That analysis of proximate causes is the easy part of this book; the hard part is to identify the ultimate causes leading to them and to the actual outcome, rather than to the opposite possible outcome of Atahuallpa’s coming to Madrid and capturing King Charles I of Spain.

Whereupon western Eurasian societies suddenly developed writing and began for the first time to pull ahead in other respects as well. , there were Eurasian and North African societies not only with incipient writing but also with centralized state governments, cities, widespread use of metal tools and weapons, use of domesticated animals for transport and traction and mechanical power, and reliance on agriculture and domestic animals for food. Throughout most or all parts of other continents, none of those things existed at that time; some but not all of them emerged later in parts of the Native Americas and sub-Saharan Africa, but only over the course of the next five millennia; and none of them emerged in Aboriginal Australia.

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