By CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
This e-book places jointly a physique of very fresh info by no means ahead of provided in a single quantity at the layout of post-release mitigation platforms. the advance of a primary wisdom base on post-release mitigation structures, via trying out and knowledge correlation, is especially new. whereas additional study and improvement is required, this functional paintings bargains assistance on placing post-release countermeasures to paintings now. The e-book offers present engineering tools for minimizing the results of the discharge of poisonous vapors, or ignition of flammable vapors, together with passive and energetic platforms meant to minimize or put off major acute results of a dispersing vapor cloud within the plant facility, or into the encircling neighborhood. As in all CCPS works, the publication emphasizes making plans and a platforms procedure, exhibits obstacles of any equipment mentioned, and gives quite a few references in order that the reader may well continue learning.
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Extra info for Guidelines for Postrelease Mitigation Technology in the Chemical Process Industry (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Sloped dike floors or sumps within the dike can also be used to reduce the surface area of the spill and allow the materials to be transferred to emergency holding systems. 4. Momentum Breaks If aerosolization is a major contributor to a hazard, a portion of the airborne liquid can be removed by placing an angled plate over the release point. The released material strikes the plate, which disperses much of the momentum and enhances coagulation of liquid droplets. In this way a portion of the liquid will drop out of the cloud.
Energy Analysts, Inc. 1990. Release Characteristics of Superheated Water and Freon-11 Liquids. Center for Chemical Process Safety, Experimental 90-05-540. New York: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Fauske, H. K. and M. Epstein. 1988. Source Term Considerations in Connection with Chemical Accidents and Vapor Cloud Modeling. Journal of Loss Prevention, Process Industries, 1: 75-83. Feind, K. 1975. Reading Vapor Loss in Ammonia Tank Spills. Safety in Ammonia Plants and Related Facilities Symposium, 17th Annual Proceedings, pp.
Strong turbulent jets, a long tube, or confinement. • The detonation cell size (the minimum volume in which the heat release effect from chemical reaction exceeds the gas expansion effects) is smaller than the minimum diameter of the tube or distance between obstacles (Glassman, 1987). 5. 3 and in Guidelines for Evaluating the Characteristics of Vapor Cloud Explosions, Flash Fires, and BLEVEs (CCPS, 1994). Structural damage caused by overpressure involves: • • • • Pressure-time histories caused by the explosion; Structural loading mechanisms; Yielding of structural members; and Dynamic response characteristics of the structure.