By Martin W. Bauer, George Gaskell
From the mid Nineties to the current day, agricultural biotechnology - GM vegetation and meals - has been the focal point of discussion and clash in lots of eu international locations. Contrasting perspectives of hazards and merits, belief in technological know-how and law, the knowledge of technological know-how, media assurance and mobilization of the general public by means of civil society teams - all were pointed out as drivers of public opinion. Designed partly to allay public matters approximately GM agriculture, a eu moratorium ended in a brand new regulatory framework. The lengthy operating controversy is a sign that the public's view can't be neglected within the improvement and implementation of latest applied sciences bobbing up out of genomics. but, agricultural biotechnologies are yet one improvement during this region. Genetic checking out and the makes use of of genetic info, the cloning of human cells and tissues, and transgenic animals are most likely no much less hard for the general public and regulators alike. This quantity, through a global workforce of social scientists from Europe, North the USA and Japan, provides a sequence of comparative views at the social, moral and criminal implications of genomics. the purpose is to catch classes from the controversies of the Nineties and to elevate the extent of discussion at the societal implications of recent advancements in genomics.
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Additional info for Genomics and Society: Legal, Ethical and Social Dimensions (Science in Society Series)
2005) ‘Navigating an ethical patchwork – Human gene banks’, Nature Biotechnology, vol 23, no 5, pp539–545 Moscovici, S. (1981) ‘On social representations’, in Forgas, J. P. (ed) Social Cognition: Perspectives on Everyday Understanding, Academic Press, London, pp181–209 Nelkin, D. and Lindee, S. (1995) The DNA Mystique: The Gene as a Cultural Icon, W. H. Freeman, New York Rabinow, P. (1996) Essays on the Anthropology of Reason, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ Schneider, D. M. (1980) American Kinship: A Cultural Account, 2nd edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago Strathern, M.
Stem cells, which are unspecialized cells that can evolve to become specialized ones – of the heart muscle or the pancreas, for instance – will also be examined here. There are two kinds: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which are found in some tissues of adult organisms. The best known of the latter are bone marrow cells, which can become blood cells, but adult stem cells have also been found in skin and muscles. They serve to regenerate cells that are lost through normal wear, injury or disease, but they appear to have less possibility of evolution than embryonic ones.
Shared genetic traits. Genetic information has the potential to redefine the social in biological terms. Rapid advances in the production of genetic knowledge bring the ‘biological’ into sharp focus. This process has become known as ‘geneticization’. Geneticization is a reductionist process that places the organic, the mechanistic and the biological as the basis of human existence while devaluing social experiences and feelings (Lippman, 1992; Nelkin and Lindee, 1995). According to this geneticization trend, the self, the personality and the potential of the individual are genetically determined.