By Kenneth S. Kendler MD, Carol A. Prescott PhD
This groundbreaking quantity synthesizes the result of the Virginia grownup dual learn of Psychiatric and Substance Use issues, which yielded longitudinal facts on greater than 9,000 contributors. The authors hint how threat for melancholy, anxiousness, consuming issues, delinquent habit, alcoholism, and substance abuse emerges from the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental affects. significant questions addressed comprise even if danger is disorder-specific, tips to distinguish among correlational and causal genetic and environmental components, intercourse adjustments in hazard, and the way hazard and protecting elements have interaction through the years.
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Extra info for Genes, Environment, and Psychopathology: Understanding the Causes of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders
The reason for the brevity of our references to other literature is not that we are unaware of the valuable contributions of our colleagues. Instead, it is that we value the clarity of the presentation that we provide to you, our reader. CHAPTER TWO Methodology Used in the VATSPSUD I n this chapter we describe the methods used to identify and recruit study participants, select measures, and conduct our assessments. We also summarize the evidence for the validity of our measures and procedures. ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY The VATSPSUD consists of two parallel studies.
We conducted several substudies to assess the reliability of our interview and coding procedures. In FF1, we assessed interviewer reliability by having a second interviewer sit in during 53 interviews and code a second interview book. The results of this study supported the reliability of our interview procedures. ) We also conducted repeat interviews (by an interviewer who had not previously interviewed the respondent or cotwin) within 2 to 8 weeks of the original interview with 194 respondents in the FF4 study and 191 respondents in the MF2 study.
Personality scales, drinking motivations). Assessment of Zygosity Classification of same-sex pairs as identical (monozygotic, or MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic, or DZ) was conducted using a combination of questionnaire responses, photographs, and DNA testing. , 1989). , 1988). By the mid-1990s DNA testing was easily conducted using samples of cheek cells (rather than blood samples, which are much more costly to collect and process). As part of the FF4 and MF2 studies, we collected DNA from all Methodology 31 twins willing to contribute samples.