By Whitney Walton
Whitney Walton techniques the nineteenth-century French business improvement from a brand new perspective--that of intake. She analyzes the French functionality on the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 to demonstrate how bourgeois shoppers encouraged France's particular trend of commercial improvement. She additionally demonstrates the significance of intake and gender at school formation and divulges how ladies inspired of their function as consumers.Walton examines very important client items industries which have been hardly studied through historians, akin to the manufacture of wallpaper, furnishings, and bronze statues. utilizing archival resources on family possessions of the Parisian bourgeoisie in addition to released works, she indicates how shoppers' flavor for stylish, inventive, well-made furniture and clothing promoted a specialization certain to nineteenth-century France.
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Extra info for France at the Crystal Palace: bourgeois taste and artisan manufacture in the nineteenth century
18. Bronze mantel clock and candlesticks by Lerolle frères. 19. Hand method of wallpaper printing (1889). 20. Machine method of wallpaper making (1889). 21. Floral wallpaper by Zuber. 22. Stag-hunt wallpaper by Delicourt. 23. Fans by Duvelleroy. Page xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful to those institutions that supported the research for this book. A predoctoral fellowship from the American Association of University Women allowed me to spend a year in France doing the research for my dissertation, on which this book is based.
4 of France, 1848-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), though his analysis of bourgeois consumption is sketchy at best. See Whitney Walton, "'To Triumph before Feminine Taste': Bourgeois Women's Consumption and Hand Methods of Production in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Paris," Business History Review 60 (Winter 1986): 541-63. An important work on bourgeois consumption in the United States is Susan Porter Benson, Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986).
It argues that the desires and concerns of bourgeois consumers in many cases promoted parcelized, hand methods of manufacturing in France, and that the successful performance of French industry at the exhibition led to policy proposals intended to support this pattern of industrial development. Consumer demand, of course, was not the only reason for the persistence of hand manufacturing in nineteenth-century France. 10 Implied or explicit in all of these explanations is the assumption of the English model or norm, in 9.