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1991. 001 This chi-square value indicates that there is less than a 1 in 1000 chance that the increased odds of becoming ill after eating a larger quantity of oysters could be due to chance alone. Table 8 gives an example of a similar calculation for a cohort study in which illness was increasingly likely among persons eating more éclairs. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: Guidelines for Investigation and Control 35 Table 8. , 1995. Additional information on these and other topics pertaining to epidemiological and statistical aspects of investigating outbreaks is available free of charge on the internet (WHO, 2002; Dicker, 1992).

3). g. infected food-handler or cross-contamination), attention should be drawn to the possibility that contamination may have occurred before the food or ingredient arrived at the establishment (Box 4, page 42). The simultaneous occurrence of multiple outbreaks due to the same pathogen at different sites is often evidence of primary contamination. It is generally recognized that many raw foods may commonly be contaminated (primary contamination). g. g. Salmonella in poultry) that food safety measures will rely on subsequent procedures such as thorough cooking to ensure that food is fit for consumption.

In many situations, company recalls of products are carried out voluntarily at the suggestion of government authorities. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: Guidelines for Investigation and Control 47 General The longer the time that passes between a food appearing on the market and it being identified as a potential source, the less likely is recovery of that food. The shelf-life of a food product will affect how much of it will be recovered. ) to distributors on the day that they produce it, and distributors will quickly pass it on to hotels, institutions, retail stores and restaurants.

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