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Extra resources for Flood Hazard for Nuclear Powerplants Near Coasts, Rivers (IAEA NS-G-3.5)
The peak period of the waves in shallow water can be up to twice the mean period. 36 (b) (c) The evaluation of any additional increase in the computed still water level for a storm surge from such effects as wave set-up30, swells and local storm effects. These effects can modify the characteristics of the near shore design wave and the resulting flood levels against structures important to safety. The extra water set-up will further increase the wave heights. The evaluation of any local modifications of waves resulting from the continuing influence of the effects of transformation of offshore waves and the evaluation of local modifications of waves due to such effects as wave transmission, runup and overtopping, including wave spray.
It should be noted that periods of maximum increase or decrease in flow may not coincide with the corresponding periods of maximum increase or decrease in level. If these parameters are critical for the design of certain structures important to safety such as levees, consideration should be given to the possibility that small area precipitation on sub-basins of the watershed may lead to faster rates of increase or decrease in the level. 19. Floods may affect safety not only via water levels but also via the effects of the water velocity.
46 earlier (para. 3), should be performed of the drainage area upstream of the site to determine in which sections the formation of a natural channel blockage is possible, with account taken of the fact that human made structures, such as mine waste dumps, highway fills across valleys or low bridges, may act as dams during floods. 6. Dams located on tributaries downstream of the site should be taken into consideration if their failure could increase the flood hazard at the site. 7. No reduction of flood level at the site due to the failure of a downstream dam should be claimed unless it can be demonstrated that the dam would certainly fail.