By Cheryl Claassen
In this provocative paintings, Cheryl Claassen demanding situations long-standing notions n this provocative paintings, Cheryl Claassen demanding situations long-standing notions Iabout hunter-gatherer lifestyles within the southern Ohio Valley because it opened up a few Iabout hunter-gatherer existence within the southern Ohio Valley because it spread out a few I8,000 to 3,500 years in the past. concentrating on freshwater shell mounds scattered 8,000 to 3,500 years in the past. targeting freshwater shell mounds scattered alongside the Tennessee, Ohio, eco-friendly, and Harpeth rivers, Claassen attracts at the newest archaeological study to provide penetrating new insights into the sacred international of Archaic peoples. probably the most awesome principles are that there have been no villages within the southern Ohio Valley throughout the Archaic interval, that every one of the buying and selling and killing have been for ritual reasons, and that physique positioning in graves displays reason for loss of life primarily.
Mid-twentieth-century checks of the shell mounds observed them because the items of culturally easy societies that cared little approximately their lifeless and have been involved purely with meals. more moderen interpretations, whereas attributing higher complexity to those peoples, have considered the websites as mere villages and under pressure such components as inhabitants development and weather switch in reading the best way those societies and their practices developed. Claassen, notwithstanding, makes a persuasive case that the websites have been really the settings for sacred rituals of burial and
renewal and that their huge shell accumulations are facts of feasts linked to these ceremonies. She argues that the actual evidence—including the positioning of the websites, the mostly undisturbed nature of the deposits, the excessive prevalence of puppy burials, the variety of instruments in keeping with physique came upon on the websites, and the indicators of human sacrifice and violent death—not in basic terms helps this view yet finds how ritual practices built over the years. The possible surprising death of shellfish intake, Claassen contends, used to be now not because of overharvesting and environmental switch; it ended, relatively, as the sacred rituals changed.
Feasting with Shellfish within the Southern Ohio Valley is a piece sure to stir controversy and debate between students of the Archaic interval. simply as absolutely, it's going to inspire a brand new appreciation for the religious lifetime of old peoples—how they considered the cosmos and the mysterious forces that surrounded them.
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Extra resources for Feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley: Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals
I find much to suggest that the mortuaries were founded with Archaic Shell-bearing Sites of the Southern Ohio Valley 33 consecration rites, and that their burial populations consisted of the bodies of numerous victims of violence. Chapter 7 specifies the activities and the different site types I perceive among the shell-bearing and mortuary sites: the public feasting with shell ceremonial centers, the hilltop renewal camps, and the shell-free private mortuaries. I present the feasting and ceremonial evidence and the biological and artifactual evidence suggesting which people interacted positively with each other and who were enemies.
Domesticated native plants are more in evidence than is pottery but are infrequent enough to indicate conservatism. The close of the era around 3,500 years ago saw but a few heaps still in use. The large shell heaps on the Ohio River around Louisville may have been abandoned, as were those on Cypress Creek and Pond River. Robinson and Penitentiary Branch continued to attract attention on the Cumberland, as did Robeson, on a bluff, and Riverton. Carlston Annis, Bowles (the late dates from both are suspect), and Read in Clusters 2 and 3 on the Green remained viable mortuaries.
Va. Wabash River Robeson Hills, Ill. Pit S-14 4240–3383 3490+/-200 Winters 1969 60" 4060–3453 3450+/-125 Winters 1969 30–36" 3984–3468 3450+/-120 Winters 1969 36–42" 4232–3220 3460+/-250 Winters 1969 78–84" 4080–3005 3270+/-250 Winters 1969 84–123" 3830–3260 3320+/-140 Winters 1969 60–66" 3811–3062 3200+/-200 Winters 1969 18–24" 3721–2985 3110+/-200 Winters 1969 Swan Island, Ill. Riverton, Ill. Cumberland River Robinson, Tenn. ) 18 Archaic Shell-bearing Sites of the Southern Ohio Valley Site Provenience BPcal 95% Raw rcy Reference to Raw Bu56 hb 3000–2432 2630+/-130 Morse 1967 Fea46 2926–2352 2530+/-150 Morse 1967 Bu58bone 2949–2304 2410+/-200 Morse 1967 Fea9 2847–2336 2450+/-140 Morse 1967 ??