By Eric Wolanski
The e-book addresses the questions: Is Australia’s swiftly transforming into human inhabitants and economic system environmentally sustainable for its estuaries and coasts? what's had to let sustainable improvement?
To resolution those questions, this publication studies particular reviews of 20 iconic Australian estuaries and bays through prime Australian estuarine scientists.
That wisdom is synthesised in time and house throughout Australia to indicate what Australian estuaries will appear like in 2050 and past in response to socio-economic judgements which are made now, and adjustments which are had to ascertain sustainability.
The booklet additionally has a Prologue by means of Mr Malcolm Fraser, former best Minister of Australia, which bridges environmental technological know-how, inhabitants coverage and sustainability.
Read Online or Download Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond PDF
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Additional resources for Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond
5) (Wolanski 1977; Lee et al. 2011; Lee and Birch 2012; Lee 2012). The largest subcatchments of this system drain to the narrowest sections of the estuary, while the smaller subcatchments drain to the wider embayments. As a consequence, following high rainfall, freshwater dominates the water column within the Lane Cove, Duck and Parramatta River upper reaches with only a small component near the bed remaining brackish/saline. Within embayments, saline waters dominate the water column with a thin layer of freshwater forming on top of marine waters.
Tides are semidiurnal with a diurnal inequity, and maximum tidal lag from the mouth to the headwaters is approximately 10 min. During quiescent weather conditions, tides are the dominant process affecting hydrodynamic behaviour, with the influence of ocean swell restricted to the lower estuary. While residence times within the lower estuary are in the order of days, it is estimated that complete tidal flushing for embayments in the upper estuary may take up to 7 months (Das 2000). Generally, the water body is well-mixed, with salinity ranging from ~27 PSU at the headwaters to ~35 PSU at the mouth, due to low fluvial supply from the catchment and tidal forcing (Irvine 1980).
Spring tidal currents near the mouth of the Homebush Bay are sufficient to resuspend and mobilise newly deposited sediments, which may then escape into the main estuary channel during ebb tides. Once in the main channel successive flood and ebb tide currents may transport these contaminated sediments to other sections of the estuary. In order to address dioxin contamination, Homebush Bay foreshore sediments and bed sediments within the section of the embayment containing the highest dioxin concentrations have been remediated (Fig.