By Alan Rogers
Photons and ElectronsHistorical SketchThe Wave Nature of LightPolarizationThe Electromagnetic SpectrumEmission and Absorption ProcessesPhoton information The Behaviour of Electrons LasersSummaryWave houses of LightThe Electromagnetic SpectrumWave RepresentationElectromagnetic WavesReflection and RefractionTotal inner ReflectionInterference of LightLight WaveguidingInterferometersDiffractionGaussian Beams and sturdy Optical ResonatorsPolarization OpticsThe Polarization EllipseCrystal OpticsRetarding WaveplatesA Variable Waveplate: The Soleil-Babinet Compensator Polarizing PrismsLinear Bir. Read more...
summary: Photons and ElectronsHistorical SketchThe Wave Nature of LightPolarizationThe Electromagnetic SpectrumEmission and Absorption ProcessesPhoton statistics The Behaviour of Electrons LasersSummaryWave houses of LightThe Electromagnetic SpectrumWave RepresentationElectromagnetic WavesReflection and RefractionTotal inner ReflectionInterference of LightLight WaveguidingInterferometersDiffractionGaussian Beams and strong Optical ResonatorsPolarization OpticsThe Polarization EllipseCrystal OpticsRetarding WaveplatesA Variable Waveplate: The Soleil-Babinet Compensator Polarizing PrismsLinear Bir
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Extra resources for Essentials of Photonics, Second Edition
9 Critical angle (J c) for total internal reflection (TIR). 15) clearly cannot be satisfied for any real value of J t and there can be no real refracted ray. The explanation of this is that the refracted ray angle (J t), under these conditions of passage from a less dense to a more dense medium, is always greater than the incident angle (J i). 9). 15) just becomes true we define as the critical angle, J c: sin ϑ c = n2 n1 For all values of J i > J c, the light is totally reflected at the boundary: the phenomenon is called total internal reflection (TIR).
8 we note that the incident wave sets up oscillations of the elementary dipoles in the second medium (see Chapter 4 for details), and at the Brewster angle, these oscillations take place in the direction of the reflected ray, because the refracted and reflected rays are orthogonal. Hence, these oscillations cannot generate any transverse waves in the required direction of reflection. Because light waves are, by their very nature, transverse, the reflected ray must be absent. 12c): n1 cosJ i = n2 cosJ t which, with Snell’s law, gives tanJ i = tanJ t There is no solution of this equation which satisfies the required conditions, so the reflected wave cannot be eliminated in this case.
This provides food for further interesting thoughts, which we shall not pursue because they are somewhat beyond the scope of this book. 7 Interference of Light We have seen that light consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. We know that these fields are vector fields because they represent forces (on unit charge and unit magnetic pole, respectively). The fields will thus add vectorially. 3). If two sinusoids are added, the result is another sinusoid. Suppose that two light waves given, via their electric fields, as e1 = E1 cos(ω t + ϕ1 ) e2 = E2 cos(ω t + ϕ 2 ) have the same polarization and are superimposed at a point in space.