By Janine Wilhelm
India is dealing with a river pollutants challenge this present day. The origins of this main issue are often traced again to post-Independence fiscal improvement and urbanisation. This e-book, against this, indicates that a few very important early roots of India’s river pollutants challenge, and particularly the toxins of the Ganges, lie with British colonial rules on wastewater disposal through the past due nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Analysing the 2 cornerstones of colonial river toxins historical past throughout the overdue nineteenth and early twentieth centuries – the creation of sewerage structures and the creation of organic sewage remedy applied sciences in towns alongside the Ganges – the writer examines varied controversies round the proposed and genuine discharge of untreated/treated sewage into the Ganges, which concerned officers on diversified administrative degrees in addition to the Indian public. The research indicates that the colonial kingdom basically neglected the complex facets of sewage disposal into rivers, that have been in actual fact glaring from eu event. Guided by means of colonial ideology and monetary coverage, colonial officers supported the advent of the most cost effective on hand sewerage applied sciences, that have been applied sciences inflicting vast toxins. therefore, rules on sewage disposal into the Ganges and different Indian rivers took on a distinct form round the flip of the 20 th century, and bought convinced enduring beneficial properties that have been to exert nice unfavorable impression at the destiny improvement of river toxins in India.
A well-researched learn on colonial river pollutants historical past, this ebook offers an cutting edge contribution to South Asian environmental heritage. it's of curiosity to students engaged on colonial, South Asian and environmental historical past, and the colonial historical past of public well-being, technological know-how and technology.
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Additional resources for Environment and Pollution in Colonial India: Sewerage Technologies along the Sacred Ganges
Since the initiation of the GAP in 1985, numerous scholars have investigated the environmental degradation of the Ganges and other rivers, and the various reasons responsible for it. 15 Two of the most important scholarly studies are Kelly D. Alley’s On the Banks of the Ganga (2002) and Lena Zühlke’s Verehrung und Verschmutzung des Ganges (2013), which both offer in-depth analyses based on a wide range of source material, while keeping a particular focus on discourses around purity and pollution.
To them I dedicate this book. A. C. Indian Advisory Committee IMS Indian Medical Service IOR India Office Records NAI National Archives of India NGRBA National Ganga River Basin Authority NWP North-Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh NWPNR North-Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh Newspaper Reports Prgs Proceedings Secy Secretary UP United Provinces of Agra and Oudh UPSA Uttar Pradesh State Archives UPSA(V) Uttar Pradesh State Archives: Regional Archives, Varanasi Introduction India is facing an acute river pollution crisis these days.
This overwhelming preoccupation with productivity and production left little room for environmental concerns. Industrialisation, coupled with massive population growth and urbanisation, put unprecedented pressures on the environment by accelerating the overuse and pollution of natural resources. As a result, immense amounts of human, industrial and agricultural wastes got dumped into water bodies, and most of India’s major streams turned into nothing short of sewers. 22 However, in order to uncover the roots of independent India’s river pollution crisis we have to look more deeply into the past.