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Download Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment by Alan Charles Kors PDF

By Alan Charles Kors

Defining the Enlightenment because the "long eighteenth century," the Encyclopedia specializes in the whole variety of philosophic and social adjustments engendered through the Enlightenment. It extends the traditional geographical limitations of the Enlightenment, overlaying not just France, England, Scotland, the Low nations, Italy, English-speaking North the United States, the German states, and Hapsburg Austria but additionally Iberian, Ibero-American, Jewish, Russian, and jap eu cultures. Nor does the Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment restrict itself to significant facilities like Paris in France and Edinburgh in Scotland, yet stocks the wealthy lode of contemporary scholarship on "secondary" and "provincial" facilities similar to Berlin and Geneva; Philadelphia and Milan. The Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment brings the same spirit of inclusion to the hot theoretical and methodological techniques that experience flowered within the humanities prior to now twenty years. together with feminist and numerous post-modernist reassessments along extra conventional views, the 4 volumes provide the broadest attainable diversity of present wisdom. Accessibility mixed with scholarly rigor make the Encyclopedia the 1st selection for learning any point of the Enlightenment. Designed and arranged for ease of use, its certain positive factors contain greater than seven hundred signed articles; annotated bibliographies following each one article to steer additional examine; an in depth approach of cross-references; a synoptic define of contents; a finished topical index offering quick access to networks of similar articles; and prime quality illustrations, together with pictures, line drawings, and maps.

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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Example text

Because of their artistry, weapons such as these have survived —often in princely collections— when a plain undecorated arm might well have been scrapped because of technical obsolescence. The appetite of the Emperor Charles V for firearms was, for example, insatiable, and evidence of the quality of workmanship demanded by him can be seen in a collection of wheellock arms in the Real Armeria, Madrid. Although wheellocks were not the sole prerogative of princes, the relative expense of even a pistol of military quality meant that their distribution was restricted to those who were best fitted to use them.

Many problems confronted the user of the hand cannon. First of all, the powder charge had to be poured in at the muzzle, followed by the ball. The touch-hole was then primed. The wooden stock or shaft could either be supported under the right arm or placed on the ground; the left hand supported the barrel, and care had to be taken to ensure that the touch-hole was uppermost. The touche, a hot coal or hot rod, would then have to be checked and, if necessary, reheated from a convenient brazier or fyrpanne.

Aside from the unexpected outcome of the young man‘s amorous proclivities, the moral is as apt today as it was over four centuries ago: that it is foolhardy to play with guns, particularly those in which the mechanism is unfamiliar. The author of the above piece, William Rem, records that the gun lock ‗functioned in such a way that when the trigger was pressed, it ignited itself and so discharged the piece‘. The occurrence of such accidents and the use of concealable weapons for nefarious purposes had the inevitable result.

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