By Robert M. Goodman
Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop technological know-how is the first-ever single-source reference paintings to inclusively conceal vintage and sleek stories in plant biology along side learn, purposes, and recommendations in crop technological know-how and agriculture. From the basics of plant development and copy to advancements in agronomy and agricultural technology, the encyclopedia's authoritative content material nurtures conversation among those academically precise but intrinsically comparable fields-offering a variety of transparent, descriptive, and concise entries to optimally serve scientists, agriculturalists, coverage makers, scholars, and most people. additionally on hand on-line This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is additionally on hand via on-line subscription, supplying various additional merits for either researchers, scholars, and librarians, together with: quotation monitoring and indicators lively reference linking stored searches and marked lists HTML and PDF layout thoughts for additional information, stopover at Taylor and Francis on-line or touch us to inquire approximately subscription techniques and print/online mixture applications. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367 / (E-mail) firstname.lastname@example.org foreign: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062 / (E-mail) email@example.com
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science (Print) (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANT & CROP SCIENCE)
1081/E-EPCS-120005564 Copyright # 2005 by Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2005 by Taylor & Francis 1 2 Air Pollutants: Mode of Action Table 1 Types of inorganic air pollutants. This table shows the more common types of air pollutants and gives a summary of the species and possible mechanism of plant toxicity. Suggested mechanisms regarding how the plants deal with the species (either by detoxiﬁcation or neutralization) are also listed Compound Chemical species À Putative mechanism Countermeasure Fluoride F Metabolic poison; alteration of soil chemistry Physical elimination from cells; chemical binding within soil Sulfur dioxide Sulﬁte/sulfate ions Osmotic load of sulfate; SO32À, metabolic poison Faster metabolism; elimination of SO32À by oxidation Ammonia NH3 Metabolic poison; overload of ammonia and disruption of pH within cells Conversion to more oxidized form of nitrogen Acid rain Hþ (with varied anions) Soil nutrient alterations; mobilization of Al Buffering power Oxides of nitrogen NOx Excess nitrogen; altered ammonia in tissues; disruption of pH within cells Faster metabolism Nitric oxide NO Possible signal transductor Elimination by oxidation Nitrogen dioxide NO2 Excess nitrogen Faster metabolism Nitric acid HNO3 Acidic reactions of cuticle; leaching of ions Strong pH buffers PAN (CH3)–O–O–NO3 Membrane injury Antioxidants Hydrogen peroxide (activated oxygen) H2O2 Unknown, but probably false signal transducer Antioxidants Ozone O3 Membrane injury Antioxidants Urban oxidants NH3 and for ﬂuoride in Fig.
This series of reactions lead to the production of the ozone that badly impacts our cities’ atmospheres. Ozone induces visible injury to the surface of leaves and a loss of productivity of plants; both have been used to monitor ozone’s presence and reactions. Generally, the visible injury patterns—such as ‘‘water-logging,’’ lower surface ‘‘bronzing,’’ upper surface ‘‘silvering’’—can be used to assess injury by persons who are well versed in their identiﬁcation.  Process 1. Entry of the pollutant into the leaf.
Wheat (cv. Minaret) Loss of Rubisco protein; decline in flag leaf CO2 assimilation rate reduced seed yield Loss of Rubisco protein; increase in CO2 assimilation rate Wheat (cv. Cocker 9904) Wheat (cv. Minaret) Wheat (cv. Hanno) Soybean (cv. Essex) Cotton (cv. Deltapine 51) Norway spruce Trembling aspen (different O3-sensitive and -tolerant clones) Reduced flag leaf photosynthesis Reduced plant relative growth rate; reduced plant biomass Reduced seed yield (40%) Reduced leaf area per mass; reduced starch contents visible leaf injury (chlorotic mottling) Reduced tree growth parameters (height, diameter, volume) Compiled from Refs.