By Thomas H. Pratt
Tom Pratt, a long-time strategy defense practitioner and lecturer in electrostatic safeguard, wrote this publication to teach within the fundamentals of electrostatics. It bargains a specific choice of details designed to offer readers the instruments they should study the danger power of universal commercial tactics. one of the issues addressed are separation and accumulation of cost, discharge, minimal ignition energies, discharge energies, electrification in business strategies, layout and working standards, measurements, quantification of electrostatic eventualities. a range of case histories is helping illustrate resources of electrostatic ignition of combustibles, and techniques for fighting such incidents.
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Extra info for Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions
In such cases MIEs are only of academic value. On the other hand MIEs are used as effective qualitative guideposts for the characterization of hazards in chemical processes. If one is to use MIEs one should have an experimental technique which relates to what is actually going on in the chemical process. At the present time progress is being made to develop a standard test so that a body of homogeneous data can be established. The data which is in the present literature comes from many sources and therefore from many different test systems and it is to be expected that data from one laboratory will differ significantly from data taken at another laboratory.
In the case of sea water the charge on the mist is positive (Blanchard, 1963)]. 3: Charging of Drops by the surface of the liquid so that Bubble Collapse only minimal electric fields would be formed. On the contrary, it has been found (Nifuku, Vonnegut, and Blanchard, 1977) that fields of the order of 100 Kv/m produce little effect on the electric charge carried by the ejected liquid droplets. So from the viewpoint of charging, significant space charges and gradients can be formed at the surface of the liquid under favorable conditions.
But, high explosives (including PETN) in powdered form can be easily initiated. In powdered form the high explosives behave more as an ordinary dust where the initial reaction is between the surrounding air and the explosive. 6. Fedoroff and Sheffield (1972) recommend that dissipative footwear be used if the MIE of an explosive is 15 ml or less. 38 Chapter 5 Discharge Energies Nutshells: [I] Electrostatic sparks coming from ungrounded conductors are usually many times more energetic than the MIEs of vapors and in such cases the precise value of the MIE is seldom important in the evaluation of hazard.