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Download Electron-Atom Collisions (Cambridge Monographs on Atomic, by Ian E. McCarthy, Erich Weigold PDF

By Ian E. McCarthy, Erich Weigold

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Example text

37). 39) and Z(Ei,Eil)AEc = [ E§ x 5{E0 -e^- Et - EJdEodEidEp. 40) AEC is the effective coincidence energy resolution and | the effective coincidence detection efficiency. 40). Beaty et al (1977) and Stefani, Camilloni and Giardini-Guidoni (1978) used crossed-beam techniques which resulted in large uncertainties. Using a gas cell target and fixed scattering angles of 45°, van Wingerden et al (1979,1981) were able to obtain absolute cross sections with errors of only 20%. The alternative approach has been to normalise the data to theory in regions where the theory is believed to be accurately understood, LahmamBennani et al.

The subject has been summarised in a number of excellent articles such as Hertel and Stoll (1978), Fischer and Hertel (1982) and Diiren (1988). The reason why the sodium and potassium transitions 2Sx/2, F = 2 —> 2P3/2, F = 3 are particularly suitable examples of the optical pumping technique is due to a number of factors. Firstly the efficiency of excitation is high, with 62% of the beam particles being involved in the excitation. Secondly the selection rule for spontaneous decay (AF = 0, +1) prevents loss to the F = 1 ground state.

Tate and Smith, 1932, and Rapp and Englander-Golden, 1965) since nondiscriminating detectors with essentially 100% efficiency are used. At energies below the double ionisation threshold the apparent cross sections will yield the true integrated cross section 07. To determine the cross section for production of ions of a given charge, e/m analysis of the product ions is required. This requires that the ions be extracted from the target gas, are collected, e/m separated and detected with known efficiencies.

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