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Download Electrical Test Equipment for Use by Electricians (Guidance by Health and Safety Executive (HSE) PDF

By Health and Safety Executive (HSE)

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O2A,35+. L/rrr --gpm Figure 1-15. Fluid analysis for single phase flow-gas or liquid. Piping Fluid Mechanics the other portions to give the total frictional pressure drop for the line (For velocity head value of concentric conical diffusers, the reader is referred to Thble 1-6). The calculations are as follows. 014)-05 : flPf = ( (?. 487), g fr lh H*) S€C'lD6 lP1, : L. : _\p. 013 o. s0) I ( . 014X6. 001 Std \\'t 18 EXAMPLE t-2: FRIGTIONAL PRESSURE DROP FOR A HOT OIL SYSTEII OF A PROCESS TANK used in the manufacture of roofing products.

Pump, or anything else within the piping system. : concepts. Consider a piping component as shown in Figure 2-1. i{:re we have a three-dimensional axis system with the : rmponent-a short length of straight pipe-subjected to 1. The appropriate code that applies to the system. 2. The design pressure and temperature. 3. The type of material. 4. The pipe size and wall thickness of each pipe 5. 6. 7. rrces and moments about each axis. The forces and moare considered as vector quantities and often ex::essed in terms of resultant vectors.

P(D - 2Py) 2tE (2-'7) i ,: thin-walled cylinders op is negligible. However, for --::k-walled pipe, the following relationship may be --'d for determining the radial stress: rozPo rozri2(Pi -il --l- _- Gt:'5r __ - ic ,_ r,2P, shere external pressure, -T | Po) P6 (2-6) - lZm ::ie (2-11) stress range reduction factor for cyclic condition Total no. of full temp. cycles over expected life < < < < < 7,000 14,000 22,000 45,000 100,000 Expansion stress, caused by thermal expansion, must not exceed the allowable stress range, oo, and is defined: oe=[@s)2+4(o)2] (2-tz) The piping codes further state that the sum of the longitudinal stresses caused by pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings shall not exceed op.

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