By Robert J. Miller
This publication provides new fabric and shines clean mild at the under-explored old and felony proof concerning the use of the doctrine of discovery in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States.
North the USA, New Zealand and Australia have been colonised via England lower than a world criminal precept that's identified at the present time because the doctrine of discovery. whilst Europeans got down to discover and make the most new lands within the 15th via to the 20 th centuries, they justified their sovereign and estate claims over those territories and the indigenous peoples with the invention doctrine. This criminal precept was once justified by way of non secular and ethnocentric rules of eu and Christian superiority over the opposite cultures, religions, and races of the area. The doctrine only if newly-arrived Europeans immediately obtained estate rights within the lands of indigenous peoples and received political and advertisement rights over the population. The English colonial governments and colonists in North the US, New Zealand and Australia all utilised this doctrine, and nonetheless use it this day to claim felony rights to indigenous lands and to claim regulate over indigenous peoples.
Written by means of indigenous felony teachers - an American Indian from the jap Shawnee Tribe, a brand new Zealand Maori (Ngati Rawkawa and Ngai Te Rangi), an Indigenous Australian, and a Cree (Neheyiwak) within the kingdom referred to now as Canada, Discovering Indigenous Lands presents a distinct perception into the insidious historic and modern software of the doctrine of discovery.
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Extra info for Discovering Indigenous Lands: The Doctrine of Discovery in the English Colonies
In 1494, these two countries signed the Treaty of Tordesillas and moved the papally drawn line 370 leagues further west (about 1,100 miles) of the Cape Verde Islands. This new dividing line now gave Portugal Discovery rights in part of the New World. Thus, Portugal’s right to colonize and control Brazil was recognized by Spain and Portugal because that land mass lies east of the line drawn by the Treaty of Tordesillas. ¹⁷ The Church’s interest in expanding Christendom and adding to its wealth, and Spain’s and Portugal’s economic and political interests in acquiring new ¹⁶ Williams, note 11, 74–8; 2 Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974) 27–44; Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1942) 105, 229; European Treaties, note 15, 9–13, 23, 53–6.
We cannot ignore the modern day relevance of this ancient international law doctrine and the amazing fact that Discovery is still a major part of the law of our countries and the daily lives of Indigenous peoples and governments. Clearly, Discovery continues to play a very signiﬁcant role in the law and policies of our four countries and restricts the property, governmental, and selfdetermination rights of the Indigenous peoples and nations. The governments and citizens of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States need to carefully examine their continuing use of Discovery against their native citizens and nations.
And it is not just a mistake of the past that cannot be corrected today. The Doctrine of Discovery needs to be addressed and eliminated from the modern day life and law of our four countries. We are very encouraged by the recent actions of several churches in responding to requests by Indigenous peoples and others to reject Discovery. In July 2009, the Episcopal Church adopted a resolution entitled ‘Repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery’ at its 76th General Convention in California. The resolution states that Discovery creates ‘destructive policies .