Home Technique • Download Current Problems: Ethanol as a High-Octane, Environmentally by Karpov S.A. PDF

Download Current Problems: Ethanol as a High-Octane, Environmentally by Karpov S.A. PDF

By Karpov S.A.

He precept of the motion of antiknocks involves fighting explosive decomposition of the goods of pre-ignition oxidation of the gas sooner than basic combustion of the gasoline mix starts. There are a number of theories that designate the essence of knock combustion. the main greatly permitted one is the so-called peroxide idea.

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Neveu, A new breed of viscosity index improvers, Croatian Society for Fuels and Lubricants Symposium Proceedings, Croatian Engineers Association, XXXVI Symposium Lubricants, 2. 353, 13 (2003). A. I. Akhmedov, Chem. Tech. Fuels Oils, 23, 147 (1987). 3. 4. A. I. Akhmedov, A. M. Levshina, Chem. Tech. Fuels Oils, 20, 41 (1984). A. I. Akhmedov, R. I. Ibragimova, Chem. Tech. Fuels Oils, 27, 160 (1991). 5. A. I. Akhmedov, T. K. Akchurina, A. M. Levshina, S. M. Gusein-zade, E. U. Isakov, Chem. Tech. Fuels Oils, 20, 211 (1984).

The hydrocarbon composition of the naphtha cuts was determined chromatographically on a Chrom-4 chromatograph with a stainless steel column packed with g-Al 2O 3 from Supelco and the sulfur content was determined according to GOST 19121. The distillation and octane number of the cuts were investigated at the Center for Appraisal and Certification of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, TsESN ANALIT (Almaty). Isomerization and hydrogenation of olefins, isomerization of n-paraffins into isoparaffins, hydrotreating to remove sulfur, and hydrocracking take place during hydrorefining of the naphtha cut on KT-22 catalyst.

The results of determining the breakthrough voltage of used oil after treatment are reported in Table 1. The arithmetic mean value of the breakdown voltage U bd was calculated with the equation: 398 U bd = 1/n∑ U bdi where n is the number of breakdowns; U bdi is the voltage attained in successive breakdowns, kV. 7 kV, which satisfies the requirements (Table 2) for oils used in electrical equipment with a working voltage up to 500 kV [2]. Treatment of industrial oil. The purpose of industrial oil is to reduce friction and wear of parts of industrial equipment, remove heat from friction units, protect parts from corrosion, clean contaminants off of friction surfaces, etc.

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