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Download Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their by Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. PDF

By Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)

Karl Leonhard’s "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses” is predicated on refined scientific descriptions and characteristical symptom styles taking place through the long term process psychiatric ailments. A prognosis will be made provided that the entire scientific gains healthy, i.e. a unique prognosis is probably not made if one attribute symptom is missing. this can be the most and critical distinction among Leonhard’s class and the operational diagnostic structures that require the presence of a few yet no longer all particular indicators of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the fundamental good points because the early days of Psychiatry and located, consistently in response to personal live-long case reports, that the endogenous psychoses need to be divided into 5 major nosological diverse teams: at the one part the prognostically beneficial unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses and at the different aspect the prognostically damaging unsystematic and systematic schizophrenias. in the meantime its reliability and validity were proven by means of clinical experiences and early effects supply instructions in regards to the various origins and sundry healing techniques for the categorical affliction profiles.

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She had episodes of mania that were often somewhat confused; mixed states in which depressive mood was combined with confused excitement, or cheerfulness and flight of ideas was combined with psychomotor inhibition; also depressions with stuporous behaviour. Then she became totally rigid, resistive, had to be tube-fed, for hours she remained in the same position. In 1928 her mother had a manic episode for 14 days (there was no complete description). In 1933 she had a depression, which after admission to Institution I.

When he came to speak of the "stealing of his freedom", he became irritated, but he soon forgot it in his elevated mood in which he felt "healthier than ever". Thr'ee weeks later he became calmer and could be discharged. In 1937 he became ill again and entered Sanatorium K. He again was full of plans: he wanted to open a hotel in Switzerland, to take over the firm of Kosmos, and to win a gold medal in sports. He felt well in the sanatorium, joked with the girls, was amiable, witty, and loud-mouthed everywhere.

Similar to the picture of confusion psychosis, manic-depressive illness may resemble the picture of motility psychosis, as the following case shows. Case 11: Maria Bat, born in 1892, was in the Frankfurt Hospital eight times for mania, which was often followed by inhibited-depressive swings. In her excitement she was generally confused and displayed hyperkinetic traits. For example, she danced, threw herself on the bed, stood up again, ran through the room, shook her head with her hair flowing, hit the wall rhythmically, spread out her arms, and made many other expressive movements.

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