By Marcel Dicke (Editor), Willem Takken (Editor)
This booklet offers an summary of chemical ecology regarding various ecosystems. It bargains an outlook at novel instructions that may be taken in chemical ecology via a molecular-ecological or eco-genomic method. The e-book addresses aboveground and belowground terrestrial structures in addition to aquatic platforms, and the organisms concerned are micro- and macro-organisms, corresponding to vegetation, arthropods and mammals.
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Extra resources for Chemical Ecology: From Gene to Ecosystem (Wageningen UR Frontis Series)
Wound-induced resistance is to a large extent mediated by products of the octadecanoid pathway, which includes linolenic acid-derived compounds, such as 12-oxophytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (Creelman and Mullet 1997; Wasternack and Parthier 1997). However, at least two more signalling pathways, to ethylene and salicylic acid, are involved in the plant response to herbivores. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that single signal cascades, such as the oxylipins, can alone produce a bewildering array of potential secondary signal molecules with a diversity of functions (Creelman and Mullet 1997; Farmer et al.
E) Mirid-damaged plants, in contrast to hornworm-damaged plants, seem to compensate metabolically for the allocation of resources (tolerance ( e) into defences and produce the same number of seeds as undamaged control plants. With the elicitation of induced direct and indirect responses and the neutral effect on plant fitness, T. notatus attack ‘vaccinates’’ N. attenuata plants against the more severely damaging Manduca hornworms. Manduca damage also induces the production of toxic and anti-digestive plant compounds but results in a significant fitness loss for the plant.
Compounds such as alkaloids, glucosinolates (in combination with myrosinase) and terpenoids function as toxins while proteinase inhibitors and polyphenol oxidases function as anti-digestive or anti-nutritive compounds, respectively. A plant inducing such defences in response to herbivory has a lower nutritive value for subsequently arriving herbivores and therefore reduces the probability of secondary attacks. The plant’s metabolic changes may thereby not only affect insects of the same species but may result in cross-resistance effects that affect the herbivore-community composition of this plant (Agrawal 1998; Kessler and Baldwin 2004).