By John P. Bennett (auth.)
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Extra info for Chemical Contraception
In Chicago filed a patent for an intermediate leading to the synthesis of norethynodrel. , 1956) and their effect on the human menstrual cycle (Rock, Garcia, and Pincus, 1957) led to large-scale clinical trials in Puerto Rico of the first oral contraceptive (Pincus, 1957; Rice-Wray, 1957; Garcia, Pincus, and Rock, 1958). 15 mg of an estrogen, mestranol (ethynyl estradiol 3-methyl ether). Subsequently, other progestins were synthesized in the 19-nor steroid series (fig. 1); with careful clinical testing they led to the production of effective oral contraceptives containing 1 mg or less of the progestin and markedly lower doses of estrogen.
However, the animal studies of Vickery and Bennett (1969) and the clinical studies of Gibor, Cohen, and Scommegna (1969) and Mears et al. (1969) suggest that such changes in transport of spermatozoa may contribute only partially to the contraceptive mechanism of the low-dose progestins. , 1971), producing an inadequate luteal phase (fig. 6). What role such an effect on the corpus luteum plays in the mechanism of action of the low-dose progestins is currently unknown. If ovulation should occur, the hormonal imbalance may adversely affect normal pregnancy by ensuring that at the time of 49 MINIPILL AND DEPOT HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES implantation the ovum is out of synchrony with the uterine endometrium.
5 mg megestrol acetate, there was a progressive decrease in penetrability of spermatozoa. Full The Minipill as a Precoital Contraceptive ~Ioor-----~~--~ ;::: j! 90 ~ 80 ~ 70 ....... FERTILIZATION 0-0 IMPLANTATION ~60 ~ 500-------------...... ::! 30 o ~ ~ 20 11! 5 Comparison between effects of chlormadinone acetate on fertilization and on implantation. Source: Bennett and Vickery (1969, fig. 0 27 23 66 76 91 52 Total 29 60 74 94 100 99 Fall. tube 0 0 0 50 100 Uterus 12 45 46 88 100 99 Total Recovered ova fertilized, % b Groups 1-3 contained three animals, each inseminated With > 10 7 spermatozoa.