By Terry J. Spinks, Terry Jones (auth.), Markus Schwaiger M.D. (eds.)
It is the mark of an prompt brain to relaxation chuffed with the measure of precision which the character of the topic admits, and never to hunt exactness the place in basic terms an approximation of in truth attainable. Aristotle With the improvement of imaging ideas, the in vivo research of human anatomy and body structure has turn into attainable with expanding "approximation of the reality. " Advances were made not just in info acquisition, but additionally in processing in addition to visualization of useful and morphological information. Following the profitable software of planar two-dimensional imaging methods, extra lately three-d info acquisition and correspond ing tomographic photograph reconstruction has turn into attainable. With the fast development of laptop aid, complicated processing enables straightforward interplay with complicated info units. Classical x-ray imaging options have matured to very good spatial answer and distinction, which supply particular delineation of anatomical alterations taking place in heart problems. In parallel, using tracer rules supported the winning creation of nuclear medication systems for the practical characterization of body structure and pathophysiology. the applying of such thoughts have been first and foremost restricted by way of quite bad spatial solution, yet excelled in excessive sensitivity 30 years, scintigraphic imaging emerged from and specificity. within the final rectilinear scanning to planar gamma digital camera imaging and single-photon xvi Preface emISSIOn tomography (SPECT). in response to those advances and the experi psychological good fortune of autoradiography, the opportunity of scintigraphy as a scientific and learn device has been good appreciated.
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Additional info for Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography
_ •• r/' •• ~. ~ . +. 01 ••• •• •• •• •• . 1 activity ...... •• .... '" .. 10 in randoms 100 FOV (mCi) Figure 1-7. The relation between activity in the scanner field of view and count rate (for true and random events) per plane. also results in lost events. Such pulses may be examined and rejected by pulse-shape discriminators but they must be corrected for. Positron tomographs exhibit what is termed paralyzable dead time characteristics. This implies that the dead time for each event is not a fixed quantity but is lengthened by the arrival of subsequent but "lost" events .
70°. The one-dimensional histogram of counts in each set of parallel LORs constitutes a projection or view of the activity in the FOV from one angle. Each LOR contains the integral of counts through the object along that line. The two-dimensional histogram of all sets for the ring is termed a sinogram. Counts from a point source describe a sine-wave pattern on a plot of the 2D histogram. 1. 2), spatial resolution in an image is limited by detector width w d. 5 Wd. This is the function obtained by stepping a point source in small steps (-1/10 of the detector width) through the FOV between two detectors.
Monte Carlo simulations showed that this success rate would fall as the total block size increased. They suggested that improvements could be made in the signal-to-noise ratio by 1) increasing the depletion thickness of the photo diode or 2) slightly cooling the module. If BGO is cooled to O°C, its light output almost doubles but its scintillation decay time increases by about the same factor . Cooling would therefore involve a trade-off between the accuracy of crystal identification and dead time.