By Jerome S. Berg
Shortwave broadcasting originated within the Twenties, whilst stations used the hot expertise to extend their variety with a purpose to serve international audiences and achieve components in their personal state that may now not simply be coated by means of general AM stations. The early days of shortwave radio have been lined in at the brief Waves, 1923-1945: Broadcast Listening within the Pioneer Days of Radio, released by way of McFarland in 1999. This booklet selections up the tale after international struggle II, concentrating on the stations themselves and the surroundings during which they operated. A spouse quantity, Listening at the brief Waves, 1945 to this present day, makes a speciality of the shortwave listening neighborhood. the center of the ebook is a close, year-by-year account of the shortwave bands in every year from 1945 to the current. It experiences what American listeners have been listening to at the overseas and family shortwave bands, describes the arrivals and departures of stations, and recounts very important shortwave occasions. The booklet additionally introduces readers to the various different types of broadcasters-international, household, spiritual, clandestine and pirate-and to non-public shortwave broadcasting within the usa. It explains the effect of relay stations, frequency administration, and jamming, and describes promising shortwave applied sciences. It additionally addresses the substantial alterations in, and demanding situations to, shortwave broadcasting because the finish of the chilly battle. The publication is richly illustrated and listed, and contours a bibliography and large notes to facilitate extra interpreting or study.
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Additional resources for Broadcasting on the Short Waves, 1945 to Today
By 1937 it was broadcasting a signiﬁcant amount of international programming, and had one transmitter operating at 100 kw. ) RCA established an International Division within NBC in 1936. Programs were directed to Europe, the Far East and Latin America. The quantity and quality of specially prepared shortwave programming improved, and NBC was soon the leader in shortwave program production. NBC, CBS and Crosley each set up Latin American networks for rebroadcast of their shortwave material on medium wave.
As this QSL from 1944 shows, GE was still verifying reports on its stations even after they had been put at the disposal of the VOA in 1942. 28 Broadcasting on the Short Waves, 1945 to Today and moved it to Massachusetts where it operated as W1XAL. It became the well-known WRUL in 1939 when all stations traded in their experimental “X” calls for regular four-letter identiﬁers. ,” in Miami; W9XAA, Chicago, “the Shortwave Voice of Labor and Farmer”; and W9XF, also in Chicago. In 1937, GE opened a shortwave transmitter in Belmont, California, W6XBE, which would become KGEI.
Four more were built in the 1960s. Then followed 20 years when VOA built only two stations, Kavala, Greece (1972) and Botswana (1981). Botswana operated solely on medium wave until 1991, when shortwave was added. As stations became obsolete they were either upgraded or taken out of service. Eight new stations were built in the decade of the 1990s and after. International Shortwave Relay Stations and Their Years of Operation75 From To 1942 1944 1945 1947 1950 1950 1950 1951 1951 1952 1953 1953 1953 1954 1955 1947 1968 1994 1968 1964 — — 2003 1996 1964 1972 1977 1999 1999 1973 Singapore78 Cyprus Botswana Ascension Is.