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At high growth rates there is relatively little difference between the organisms potential substrate uptake rate and the substrate requirement for growth. However, at low growth rates relatively little substrate is required for growth but the potential substrate uptake rate is unaltered - this means that the organismcan channel more of its substrate carbon into product. n Can you think of a disadvantage of operating a process at low dilution rate? The main disadvantage is that, although high yields of product might be achieved, it is difficult to achieve high productivities (kg product m-3h-'1.

Y - Efficiency of growth and product formation dope is m 49 The observed values of YXl6at the different dilution rates can also be used to determine Y do2 values. This is achieved by defining YxlSand Y in terms of their respective do2 rates of production and taku\g into account the degrees of reductance. So. rate of biomass production "" = rate of substrateutilisation - rate of biomass production - y do2 rate of oxygen consumption Combining these two rate equationsand taking into account the degree of reductance, we have: y do2 --*I.

1 Product yield considerations We can see that for type 1processes, high growth rate is obligately linked to a high rate of product formation. Indeed, this is the case for all products produced by a fermentative mode of metabolism, eg ethanol, lactic acid, acetone. Chemostat studies have shown that for most aerobic processes when growth is limited by some nutrient other than the carbon source, the yield of product decreases with increase in specific growth rate (p or D; p = dilution rate (D) in chemostat culture).

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