By William Oldendorf M.D., William Oldendorf Jr. (auth.)
This ebook isn't really meant as a common textual content on MRI. it's written as an intro duction to the sphere, for nonexperts. We current the following an easy exposition of convinced elements of MRI which are vital to appreciate to take advantage of this important diagnostic instrument intelligently in a medical environment. the fundamental ideas are provided nonmathematically, utilizing no equations and no less than symbols and abbreviations. For these requiring a deeper figuring out of MRI, this e-book can help facilitate the transition to plain texts. Chapters 1 via four offer a common advent to the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and the way it really is utilized in imaging. bankruptcy 1 discus ses magnetic resonance, utilizing a compass needle for instance. In bankruptcy 2, the transition to the magnetic resonance of the atomic nucleus is made. bankruptcy three describes the rules of imaging. In bankruptcy four, the phrases T 1 and T 2 are defined and their courting to tissue characterization; the thrill damental function of thermal magnetic noise in T 1 and T 2 is discussed.
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Extra resources for Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
By measuring thc strength of the radio signal at the different frequencies, the amount of hydrogen along each line in the slice of tissue can be determined. This plane of tissue divided into parallel lines, each line of tissue radiating a specific frequency of radio waves at a particular intensity, can again be compared to a piano. In this case, all of the strings of the piano are vibrating, each producing its own notc. Such a mix of notes would be a meaningless jumble, even to a skilled musician.
01 % per centimeter. The resonance of the hydrogen nucleus is so sharply defined that even such a slight change in field strength is all that is needed to isolate a plane a few millimeters thick. It is impractical to create a sufficiently controlled gradient through the entire body, so the gradient is generated only in the region being imaged. , there is a relationship between their resonant frequency and their position in the gradient. In this example, the hydrogen nuclei in each successively rostral (toward the head) transverse plane of the body are exposed to progressively higher field strengths, and so resonate at correspondingly higher larmor frequencies.
With the approach to imaging we have described so far - using a single stimulating pulse - it is impossible to separate the effects of T I and T 2. A single pulse can give us mainly regional hydrogen concentration. To measure T I and T 2, the stimulation of the tissues is modified. Instead of one pulse of radio-frequency energy, two or more pulses are applied in quick succession. 50 4. Tissue Characterization: T 1 and T 2 Such pulse sequences cause the re-emitted signal to contain extractable information about T 1 and T 2.