Home Women • Download Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and by Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi PDF

Download Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and by Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi PDF

By Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi

Why are there nonetheless so few lady scientists? regardless of the clinical ethos of universalism and inclusion, ladies proceed to adventure genuine social inequities as they fight to realize acceptance within the medical group. in line with wide interviews and sponsored via quantitative research, this compelling paintings exposes the hidden boundaries, sophisticated exclusions, and unwritten ideas that confront ladies at each juncture alongside the clinical profession path--from formative years to retirement. via bright own money owed the authors provide an illuminating and sobering view of the results those stumbling blocks have at the own lives of girls. They argue that girls can achieve the clinical office by way of effectively handling "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend on for pro aid and new principles. This benchmark quantity is key studying for all scientists and social scientists--both male and female--and for girls contemplating a systematic profession.

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Sample text

Both Block (1984) and Hoffman (1977), in their studies of childrearing practices, found parents encouraged their sons to actively explore the physical world, emphasized achievement, competition, and self-reliance, and felt it was important they try new things. In contrast, daughters were expected to be ‘kind, unselfish, attractive, loving and well mannered [and grew] up in a more structured and directive world than males’ (Block, 1984). With few exceptions, these studies reflect how adult reactions to babies based on presumed sex perpetuate cultural beliefs about masculinity and femininity.

It is not that most girls will have been directly told that they ‘can’t’ do what boys can. ’ Nevertheless, in various ways many receive veiled messages of discouragement and denigration (Orenstein, 1994). DISCOURAGEMENT OF GIRLS ’ INTEREST IN SCIENCE DURING ADOLESCENCE One of the primary tasks of adolescence is the further consolidation of identity. Peers replace adults in importance, and social acceptance has primacy. The cumulative subtle and covert messages regarding expectations and perceptions of females eventually influence the sense of one’s place in the world, feelings of self-worth, and possibilities for the future.

In many ways, women are unable to choose to do science; society has already chosen who will do science through its construction of gender roles. There is considerable evidence of the relationship between the adolescents’ notions of gender-appropriateness and recruitment to scientific careers (Eiduson and Beckman, 1973; NSF, 1988). The image of the scientist as eccentric, non-conformist, and lacking in emotional capacity suggests that the potential recruit must have certain types of personality characteristics and live a particular lifestyle.

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